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  1. Most noticeable of all: [65] Vedic Sanskrit (c. 1500–500 BC). This language is unique in that its source documents were all composed orally, and were... Ancient Greek (c. 750–400 BC). Mycenaean Greek (c. 1450 BC) is the oldest recorded form, but its value is lessened by... Hittite (c. 1700–1200 BC). ...

  2. The Indo-European languages include some 449 (SIL estimate, 2018 edition) languages spoken by about or more than 3.5 billion people (roughly half of the world population). Most of the major languages belonging to language branches and groups of Europe, and western and southern Asia, belong to the Indo-European language family. Therefore, Indo-European is the biggest language family in the world by number of mother tongue speakers (but not by number of languages in which it is the 3rd or 5th ...

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    • One of the world's major language families
    • Albanian
    • Anatolian: Luwian; Hittite
    • Armenian
    • Balto-Slavic Baltic ( Latvian and Lithuanian) Slavic (such as Polish, Russian, and Serbian)
  3. This list is of Indo-European languages. These languages all sprung from a common source called Proto-Indo-European . ' Armenian Albanian (Albania and Kosovo)' Baltic languages Lithuanian language Celtic languages Goidelic languages Brythonic languages Germanic languages North Germanic languages Danish Norwegian Swedish West Germanic languages

    • Overview
    • Development of the hypothesis
    • Historical and geographical setting
    • Branches
    • Phonology
    • Morphology

    Proto-Indo-European is the reconstructed common ancestor of the Indo-European language family. Its proposed features have been derived by linguistic reconstruction from documented Indo-European languages. No direct record of Proto-Indo-European exists. Far more work has gone into reconstructing PIE than any other proto-language, and it is the best ...

    No direct evidence of PIE exists; scholars have reconstructed PIE from its present-day descendants using the comparative method. For example, compare the pairs of words in Italian and English: piede and foot, padre and father, pesce and fish. Since there is a consistent correspondence of the initial consonants that emerges far too frequently to be ...

    Scholars have proposed multiple hypotheses about when, where, and by whom PIE was spoken. The Kurgan hypothesis, first put forward in 1956 by Marija Gimbutas, has become the most popular. It proposes that the original speakers of PIE were the Yamnaya culture associated with the kurgans on the Pontic–Caspian steppe north of the Black Sea.: 305–7 Acc...

    The Lusitanian language was a marginally attested language spoken in areas near the border between present-day Portugal and Spain. The Venetic and Liburnian languages known from the North Adriatic region are sometimes classified as Italic. Albanian and Greek are the only survivin

    Proto-Indo-European phonology has been reconstructed in some detail. Notable features of the most widely accepted reconstruction include: 1. three series of stop consonants reconstructed as voiceless, voiced, and breathy voiced; 2. sonorant consonants that could be used syllabically; 3. three so-called laryngeal consonants, whose exact pronunciatio...

    Proto-Indo-European roots were affix-lacking morphemes which carried the core lexical meaning of a word and were used to derive related words. Proto-Indo-European was probably a fusional language, in which inflectional morphemes signalled the grammatical relationships between wor

    Many morphemes in Proto-Indo-European had short e as their inherent vowel; the Indo-European ablaut is the change of this short e to short o, long e, long o, or no vowel. This variation in vowels occurred both within inflectional morphology and derivational morphology. Categories

    Proto-Indo-European nouns were probably declined for eight or nine cases

  4. The Indo-European language family is descended from Proto-Indo-European, which is believed to have been spoken thousands of years ago. Early speakers of Indo-European daughter languages most likely expanded into Europe with the incipient Bronze Age, around 4,000 years ago (Bell-Beaker culture). Germanic

  5. Media in category "Indo-European languages". The following 55 files are in this category, out of 55 total. "Nepali" written in Devanagari.svg 638 × 213; 3 KB. Ardhamagadhi.gif 810 × 510; 26 KB. Balto slavic languages1997.png 646 × 440; 21 KB.

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