Iran (Persian: ایران Irān [ʔiːˈɾɒːn] ()), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan, to the southeast by Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and ...
The history of Iran, which was commonly known until the mid-20th century as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
- Religion in Iran
In the past, Iran was called "Persia" by people outside of the country. The people that lived there called the country "Iran". The official name was Persia, a region in Iran. The name Persia was used when dealing with other countries and in governmentpapers. In 1935, Reza Shāh Pahlavi was Shah of Iran. He officially asked foreigners to call the country "Iran". This was done to show that Iran belongs to all the non-Persian Iranians as well as to Persian Iranians. The name Iran means land of the Aryans. It is used in the ancient book of the Zoroastrians, the Avesta. In the 19th and early 20th century, the name Aryan was used by Europeans to mean all Indo-Europeans. The "Aryan Race" was a term that Hitler used to describe his "Superior" or "perfect" race, but it first meant Iranians."Aryan" means "noble" in Iranian languages.
Iran has the natural resource of oil. It is a member of OPEC. Oil is one of its main exports. Rice, handicrafts, carpets and crocus are important local products. Iran is the world's largest exporter and producer of caviar.Iran is also one of the world's biggest exporters of pistachio nuts. Iran has factories that produce industrial products. Iran is also involved in the field of biomedical sciences. Rial is the moneyused in Iran.
About 90% of Iranian people are Muslim. The state religion is Shia Islam. It has been the state religion since the Safavid dynasty in the 16th century. This is the religion of about 75% of Iranians. They belong to the Twelver branch. About 9% of Iranians Muslim belong to the Sunni branch of Islam. The 9% of Iranians who are not Muslim are Bahá'ís, Mandeans, Zoroastrians, Christians and Jews.It is thought that there are between 300,000 and 350,000 Persian (Iranian) Jews.
1. Akbarzadeh, P. (2003) "Iran or Persia? Farsi or Persian? Which Ones Should be Called ?!". Payvand News of Iran. 2. Norton, K. (2002) "ARYAN" Archived 2007-12-13 at the Wayback Machine. Rhetoric of Race Dictionary Project. College of New Jersey.
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- Flora and fauna
- Environmental concerns
- Resources and land use
Typically, one major town dominated each basin, and there were complex economic relationships between the town and the hundreds of villages that surrounded it. In the higher elevations of the mountains rimming the basins, tribally organized groups practiced transhumance, moving with their herds of sheep and goats between traditionally established summer and winter pastures. There are no major river systems in the country, and historically transportation was by means of caravans that followed rou
The topography of Iran consists of rugged, mountainous rims surrounding high interior basins. The main mountain chain is the Zagros Mountains, a series of parallel ridges interspersed with plains that bisect the country from northwest to southeast. Many peaks in the Zagros exceed 3,000 metres above sea level, and in the south-central region of the country there are at least five peaks that are over 4,000 metres. As the Zagros continue into southeastern Iran, the average elevation of the peaks de
Iran has a variable climate. In the northwest, winters are cold with heavy snowfall and subfreezing temperatures. Spring and fall are relatively mild, while summers are dry and hot. In the south, winters are mild and the summers are very hot, having average daily temperatures in July exceeding 38 °C. On the Khuzestan Plain, summer heat is accompanied by high humidity.
7% of the country is forested. The most extensive growths are found on the mountain slopes rising from the Caspian Sea, with stands of oak, ash, elm, cypress, and other valuable trees. On the plateau proper, areas of scrub oak appear on the best-watered mountain slopes, and villagers cultivate orchards and grow the plane tree, poplar, willow, walnut, beech, maple, and mulberry. Wild plants and shrubs spring from the barren land in the spring and afford pasturage, but the summer sun burns them aw
Natural hazards: periodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms; earthquakes along western border and in the northeast Environment – current issues: air pollution, especially in urban areas, from vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents; deforestation; desertification; oil pollution in the Persian Gulf; wetland losses from drought; soil degradation; inadequate supplies of potable water in some areas; water pollution from raw sewage and industrial waste ...
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur arable land: 10.87% permanent crops: 1.19% other: 87.93% Irrigated land: 87,000 km2 Total renewable water resources: 137 km3 Freshwater withdrawal: total: 93.3 km3/yr per capita: 1,306 m3/yr
- Qualifications and election
- Powers and responsibilities
- Oath of office
- Commentary on the presidency in constitution
The president of Iran is the head of government of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The president is the highest-ranking official of Iran. The president carries out the decrees, and answers to the Supreme Leader of Iran, who functions as the country's head of state. Unlike the executive in other countries, the president of Iran does not have full control over the government, which is ultimately under the control of the Supreme Leader. Before elections the volunteers must be approved by the guardian
The procedures for presidential election and all other elections in Iran are outlined by the Supreme Leader. The President of Iran is elected for a four-year term in a national election by universal adult suffrage for everyone of at least 18 years of age. Candidates for the presidency must be approved by the Council of Guardians, a twelve-member body consisting of six clerics and six lawyers. According to the Constitution of Iran candidates for the presidency must possess the following qualifica
The President's duties include the following, subject to supervision and approval by the Supreme Leader: 1. Second in command of the executive branch of government and chairman of the cabinet 2. The deputy commander-in-chief of the Islamic Republic of Iran Army 3. Declare a state of emergency After the passage of the parliament 4. Head of the Supreme National Security Council 5. Head of the Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution 6. Appointment of first Vice President of Iran and other Vice P
I, as the President, upon the Holy Qur'an and in the presence of the Iranian nation, do hereby swear in the name of Almighty God to safeguard the official Faith, the system of the Islamic republic and the Constitution of the country; to use all my talents and abilities in the discharge of responsibilities undertaken by me; to devote myself to the service of the people, glory of the country, promotion of religion and morality, support of right and propagation of justice; to refrain from being aut
TIME Magazine noted that presidential elections in Iran change nothing as Supreme Leader Khamenei — and not the President — wields the ultimate power. Tallha Abdulrazaq, an Iraqi researcher at the University of Exeter's Strategy and Security Institute, stated that Khamenei, the longtime Supreme Leader of Iran, always uses the president as a kind of a buffer zone between him and the people. “Anything that goes right, Khamenei then can say 'I am the wise leader who put this guy in ...
Iran showed footage of the USS Boxer in a move to disprove Donald Trump's claims that the US shot down an Iranian drone in the Gulf. On 15 September 2019, Iran ruled out the accusations of the United States of it conducting drone attacks on Saudi Arabia's oil fields. Iran also warned that it is ready for a "full-fledged" war.
Iran ke bahut din talak bahaar ke log Persia bolat rahin. 1935 me Reza Shāh Pahlavi, jon ki uu time shah rahaa, des ke naam badal ke Iran kar diis, kuch log soche hae ki Adolf Hitler ke khusi kare ke khatir. Iran naam, Aryanse aae hae jiske matlab "Land of Aryans" hae. Zoroastrians, ke book me iske Avesta bolaa jaae hae. 500 BC me, abhi ke jon Iran hae Persian Empire ke center rahaa. Alexander the Great ii des ke capture kar liis rahaa aur iske baad Achaemenid dynasty Persia ke raaj karis. Iske baad Sassanian dynasty(AD 224-651) raaj karis. Aur log bhi Persia ke occupy karin jaise ki Arabs (7th century), Turks (10th century) aur Mongols (13th century). Fir bhi Iran aapan culture ke jinda rakhis. Safavid dynasty (1502-1736) Islam aur Shi'a Iran ke dharam banais lekin ii time talak Iran ke jaada log Islam ke maanat rahin. Iran ke aakhri raja Pahlavi dynasty kr rahaa jon ki 1925 se 1979 talak raaj karis, jab ek revolution ke baad Ayatollah Khomeini ek Islamic republicbanais.↑ "Iran Country Profile". BBC NEWS. Retrieved 8 August 2012.↑ ""CESWW" – Definition of Central Eurasia". Cesww.fas.harvard.edu. Retrieved 1 August 2010.↑ "Iran Guide". National Geographic. 14 June 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
Akbarzadeh, P. (2003) "Iran or Persia? Farsi or Persian? Which Ones Should be Called ?!". Payvand News of Iran.
Safavid Iran or Safavid Persia (/ ˈ s æ f ə v ɪ d, ˈ s ɑː-/), also referred to as the Safavid Empire, was one of the greatest Iranian empires after the 7th-century Muslim conquest of Persia, ruled from 1501 to 1736 by the Safavid dynasty.
Tehran (/ t ɛəˈr æ n,-ˈ r ɑː n, ˌ t eɪ ə-/; Persian: تهران Ťehrân [tehˈɾɒːn] ()) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.With a population of around 8.7 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the most populous city in Iran and Western Asia, and has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East (after ...