The Italic languages form a branch of the Indo-European language family, whose earliest known members were spoken in the Italian Peninsula in the first millennium BC. The most important of the ancient languages was Latin, the official language of ancient Rome, which conquered the other Italic peoples before the common era. The other Italic languages became extinct in the first centuries AD as their speakers were assimilated into the Roman Empire and shifted to some form of Latin. Between the thi
The following classification, proposed by Michiel de Vaan,...
Proto-Italic was probably originally spoken by Italic tribes...
- Origin theories
The main debate concerning the origin of the Italic...
The Italic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. They were first spoken in Italy. The main language was Latin, which eventually turned into the Romance languages spoken today. The Roman Empire spread Latin to much of Western Europe.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For a list of words relating to Italic languages, see the Italic languages category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. The main article for this category is Italic languages.
- History of The Concept
- Origin Theories
- See Also
- External Links
Historical linguists have generally concluded that the ancient Indo-European languages of the Italian peninsula that were not identifiable as belonging to other branches of Indo-European, such as Greek, belonged to a single branch of the family, parallel for example to Celtic and Germanic. The founder of this theory is Antoine Meillet(1866–1936). This unitary theory has been criticized by, among others, Alois Walde, Vittore Pisani and Giacomo Devoto, who proposed that the Latino-Faliscan and Osco-Umbrian languages constituted two distinct branches of Indo-European. This view gained acceptance in the second half of the 20th century,though proponents such as Rix would later reject the idea, and the unitary theory remains dominant in contemporary scholarship.
The following classification, proposed by Michiel de Vaan (2008), is generally agreed on,although some scholars have recently rejected the position of Venetic within the Italic branch. 1. Proto-Italic (or Proto-Italo-Venetic), 1.1. Proto-Venetic, 1.1.1. Venetic(550–100 BC), 1.2. Proto-Latino-Sabellic, 1.2.1. Latino-Faliscan, 18.104.22.168. Early Faliscan (7th–5th c. BC), 22.214.171.124.1. Middle Faliscan (5th–3rd c. BC), 126.96.36.199.1.1. Late Faliscan (3rd–2nd c. BC), strongly influenced by Latin, 188.8.131.52. Old Latin (6th–1st c. BC), 184.108.40.206.1. Classical Latin (1st c. BC–3rd c. AD), 220.127.116.11.1.1. Late Latin(3rd–6th c. AD), 18.104.22.168.2. Vulgar Latin (2nd c. BC–9th c. AD), evolved into Proto-Romance (the reconstructed Late Vulgar Latin ancestor of Romance languages) between the 3rd and 8th c. AD, 22.214.171.124.2.1. Romance languages, non-mutually intelligible with Latin since at the least the 9th c. AD; the only Italic languages still spoken today, 126.96.36.199.2.1.1. Gallo-Romance (attested from 842...
Proto-Italic was probably originally spoken by Italic tribes north of the Alps. In particular, early contacts with Celtic and Germanic speakers are suggested by linguistic evidence. Bakkum defines Proto-Italic as a "chronological stage" without an independent development of its own, but extending over late Proto-Indo-European and the initial stages of Proto-Latin and Proto-Sabellic. Meiser's dates of 4000 BC to 1800 BC, well before Mycenaean Greek, are descri...
Languages of Italy in the Iron Age
At the start of the Iron Age, around 700 BC, Ionian Greek settlers from Euboea established colonies along the coast of southern Italy. They brought with them the alphabet, which they had learned from the Phoenicians; specifically, what we now call Western Greek alphabet. The invention quickly spread through the whole peninsula, across language and political barriers. Local adaptations (mainly minor letter shape changes and the dropping or addition of a few letter...
Timeline of Latin
In the history of Latin of ancient times, there are several periods: 1. From the archaic period, several inscriptions of the 6th to the 4th centuries BC, fragments of the oldest laws, fragments from the sacral anthem of the Salii, the anthem of the Arval Brethrenwere preserved. 2. In the pre-classical period (3rd and 2nd centuries BC), the literary Latin language (the comedies of Plautus and Terence, the agricultural treatise of Cato the Elder, fragments of works by a number of other aut...
The main debate concerning the origin of the Italic languages mirrors that on the origins of the Greek ones, except that there is no record of any "early Italic" to play the role of Mycenaean Greek. All we know about the linguistic landscape of Italy is from inscriptions made after the introduction of the alphabet in the peninsula, around 700 BC onwards, and from Greek and Roman writers several centuries later. The oldest known samples come from Umbrian and Faliscan inscriptions from the 7th century BC. Their alphabets were clearly derived from the Etruscan alphabet, which was derived from the Western Greek alphabet not much earlier than that. There is no reliable information about the languages spoken before that time. Some conjectures can be made based on toponyms, but they cannot be verified. There is no guarantee that the intermediate phases between those old Italic languages and Indo-European will be found. The q...
General and specific characteristics of the pre-Roman Italic languages: 1. in phonetics: Oscan (in comparison with Latin and Umbrian) preserved all positions of old diphthongs ai, oi, ei, ou, in the absence of rhotacism, the absence of sibilants[clarification needed], in the development of kt > ht; a different interpretation of Indo-European kw and gw (Latin qu and v, Osco-Umbrian p and b); in the latter the preservation of s in front of nasal sonants and the reflection of Indo-European *dh and *bh as f; initial stress (in Latin, it was reconstructed in the historical period), which led to syncopationand the reduction of vowels of unstressed syllables; 2. in the syntax: many convergences; In Osco-Umbrian, impersonal constructions, parataxis, partitive genitive, temporal genitive and genitive relationships are more often used;Michael de Vaan (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languagesp.826, Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Series, Brill Academic Publishers, (part available freely..."A Glossary of Indo-European Linguistic Terms". Institut für deutsche Sprache und Linguistik. 2009. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 16 September 2009.
The Gallo-Italic, Gallo-Italian, Gallo-Cisalpine or simply Cisalpine languages constitute the majority of the Romance languages of northern Italy. They are Piedmontese, Lombard, Emilian, Ligurian, and Romagnol. Although most publications define Venetian as part of the Italo-Dalmatian branch, both Ethnologue and Glottolog group it into the Gallo-Italic languages. These languages are spoken also in the depertement of Alpes-Maritimes in France, Ticino and southern Grisons in Switzerland and the mic
- Italic Peoples
- The Hierarchy
- Extinct? Really?
- Dead Or Alive - The Case of Friulian
- Sicel and Oenotrian
- External Links Modified
- Latin "Duo" Is Without Macron
I've seen the peoples speaking Italic languages being referred to as Italic peoples. I still don't know much about these peoples besides the Romans, though. Gringo30011:00, 16 Apr 2005 (UTC)
I've been studying Latin for several years now. Has anyone on here studied the other Italic languages? 1. They're rather scarcely attested afaik. There just isn't enough corpus left for a thorough understanding of these languages. 惑乱 Wakuran (talk) 13:17, 21 February 2009 (UTC) Relation between [Romance_languages] and [Italic_languages]? Acconding to the entry on romance languages, it's a subfamily of italic language, but the italic language page thosen't mention them. Which one is right? 1. Yes, they are mentioned: 1.1. As Rome extended its political dominion over the whole of the Italian peninsula, so too did Latin become dominant over the other Italic languages, which ceased to be spoken perhaps sometime in the 1st century AD. From so-called Vulgar Latin the Romance languages emerged. bogdan ʤjuʃkə | Talk16:12, 13 Apr 2005 (UTC) The page presents Italo-Celtic as a fact when actually it's more of a hypothesis (and though I'm no expert, I don't think it's a particularly popular hyp...
Why, in the infobox, is Romance shown as a sibling of Latino-Faliscan when the Romance languages are descendants of Latin, itself a descendant of Latino-Faliscan? —Largo Plazo (talk) 14:03, 30 August 2008 (UTC)
I'm tired of everyone saying latin is a dead language. It is the language of science, medicine and law. A pre-cursor to so many languages, an understanding of latin will give ANYONE an advantage ANYWHERE language skills are needed. I submit that we use a better word than extinct. Just because a language is not spoken now-adays does not mean it is dead.188.8.131.52 (talk) 01:31, 1 June 2009 (UTC) 1. That is the definition of the expression "dead language" so, yes, it does mean that, despite your perfectly true observations. —Largo Plazo (talk) 18:58, 1 June 2009 (UTC) 2. I would like to see a person speaking Latin with correct pronunciation. Dude, Latin is dead! Language of science? Replaceable. Languages are living and developing over time. This is fairly natural. Why do you learn a dead root language to understand other languages better? Latin does not help you as much as you think. In my country, we have to choose between learning French or Latin at school and the tendency for Lat...
The article on Friulian says it is an Italic language. However, the article on Itlaic languages lists the romance languages and "extinct languages". Friulian is not a Romance language, so logic would make one reason that it must be included under the reference to extinct languages. However, Friulian is alive and kicking and has a thriving community on the Wikipedia! --Rui ''Gabriel'' Correia (talk) 18:35, 13 April 2010 (UTC) 1. FYI general: someone changed the Friulian article to make it a Romance language. Nice catch Correia, you ought to do more on WP.Dave (talk) 02:10, 28 July 2010 (UTC)
Is there any non-Romance Italic language still alive? Kanzler31 (talk) 06:18, 5 December 2010 (UTC) 1. No. --Taivo (talk) 06:32, 5 December 2010 (UTC) 1. 1.1. Yes. See Griko language 184.108.40.206 (talk) 00:55, 26 August 2012 (UTC) 1. 1.1. 1.1.1. The anonymous IP obviously doesn't have a clue about what he is saying since "Griko" is a dialect of Greek and not an Italic language at all. --Taivo (talk) 06:23, 26 August 2012 (UTC)
The list is incomplete: Sicel is attested in inscripitions and mentioned even by Varro in his De Lingua Latina: it belonged in the Latino-Faliscan group. Oenotrians too were possibly a Latino-Falsican speaking people.Aldrasto11 (talk) 12:45, 4 February 2012 (UTC) 1. IIRC, Rix also mentions that a Latino-Faliscan dialect was originally spoken in the town of Caere, besides Etruscan, and I seem to recall that Auruncan, the dialect of the Latin tribe of the Aurunci, attested in the Garigliano Bowl, is sometimes considered a separate language or variety. --Florian Blaschke (talk) 13:36, 10 August 2016 (UTC) It seems there is not enough changes from PIE, because applying those rules one can't convert PIE *h₂ŕ̥ḱtos to latin ursus. Only arktos has appeared: #HRC → #aRC220.127.116.11 (talk) 16:42, 20 March 2013 (UTC) 1. Latin ursus is an unsolved problem. Rix's law predicts **ar-, that's true. The s is probably regular, see Thorn cluster. --Florian Blaschke (talk) 13:36, 10 August 2016 (UTC)...
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The caption for the coloured diagram of languages in Italy refers to 'Raetian', but the diagram itself refers to 'Raetic'. I don't know which is correct, but the same term should surely be used in both cases.18.104.22.168 (talk) 15:21, 10 July 2017 (UTC)
at least according to wiktionary, it is with a short o — Preceding unsigned comment added by 22.214.171.124 (talk) 11:01, 25 August 2018 (UTC)
The Proto-Italic language is the ancestor of the Italic languages, most notably Latin and its descendants, the Romance languages. It is not directly attested in writing, but has been reconstructed to some degree through the comparative method. Proto-Italic descended from the earlier Proto-Indo-European language.
Based on glottochronological evidence, Proto-Italic is believed to have split off from the archaic western Proto-Indo-European dialects some time before 2500 BC. It was originally spoken by Italic tribes north of the Alps before they moved south into the Italian Peninsula during the second half of the 2nd millennium BCE. Linguistic evidence also points to early contacts with Celtic tribes and Proto-Germanic speakers. Although an equation between archeological and linguistic evidence cannot be es
Proto-Italic words may have had a fixed stress on the first syllable, a stress pattern which probably existed in most descendants in at least some periods. In Latin, initial stress is posited for the Old Latin period, after which it gave way to the "Classical" stress pattern. How
Adjectives inflected much the same as nouns. Unlike nouns, adjectives did not have inherent genders. Instead, they inflected for all three genders, taking on the same gender-form as the noun they referred to. Adjectives followed the same inflectional classes of nouns. The largest
A list of regular phonetic changes from Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Italic follows. Because Latin is the only well-attested Italic language, it forms the main source for the reconstruction of Proto-Italic. It is therefore not always clear whether certain changes apply to all of Italic, or only to Latin, because of lack of conclusive evidence.
The Tuscan language is mainly spoken in Tuscany, Italy. The Corsican language is related to Tuscan and has the dialects of Gallurese and Sassarese. The Italian language, is the closest to Latin of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City and western Istria (in Slovenia and Croatia).
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