Korean emigration to the U.S. was known to have begun as early as 1903, but the Korean American community did not grow to a significant size until after the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965; as of 2017, excluding the undocumented and uncounted, roughly 1.85 million Koreans emigrants and people of Korean descent live in the ...
Koreans in Vietnam is a community of Vietnam with a...
South Koreans refer to themselves as Hanguk-in or...
Modern Koreans are suggested to be the descendants of the...
The Korean Wikipedia is written almost entirely in hangul. Hanja is only used in order to clarify certain phrases, and is usually parenthesized. There is a group, named Dajimo, that is actively working to introduce a mixed script system to the Korean Wikipedia.
Korea, or the Korean Peninsula, is a region in East Asia.Since 1945 it has been divided into the two parts which soon became the two sovereign states: North Korea (officially the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea") and South Korea (officially the "Republic of Korea").
The U.S. spent $30 billion in total on the war. Some 1,789,000 American soldiers served in the Korean War, accounting for 31 percent of the 5,720,000 Americans who served on active-duty worldwide from June 1950 to July 1953. South Korea reported some 137,899 military deaths and 24,495 missing.
- 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953 (de facto), (3 years, 1 month and 2 days), 25 June 1950 – present (de jure), (71 years and 3 weeks)
- Korean Peninsula, Yellow Sea, Sea of Japan, Korea Strait, China–North Korea border
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Koreans. majority: nan-releegious an atheist, minority: Korean Buddhism, Korean Christianity, Muism (Korean Shamanism), Cheondoism, Islam. Backgrund o Korean Confucianism. This airticle conteens Korean text. Ithoot proper renderin support, ye micht can see quaisten merks, boxes, or ither seembols insteid o Hangul or Hanja.
- North Koreans
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The South Korean media of the 1990s referred to Koreans in China as jungguk-in (Korean: 중국인; Hanja: 中國人, "Chinese people"). Government regulations in 2004 mandated the use of the term jaeoe dongpo (Korean: 재외동포; Hanja: 在外同胞, "compatriots who live abroad"). Similarly friendly terms include hanguk gye jungguk-in (Korean: 한국계 중국인; Hanja: 韓國系中國人, "Chinese people of Korean descent") or jungguk dongpo (Korean: 중국동포; Hanja: 中國同胞, compatriots in China). The term joseon-jok (Korean: 조선족; Hanja: 朝鮮族, "Joseon person") is also used but has been criticized by Koreans in China for being a less amicable term than those for other overseas Koreans like Korean Americans (jaemi gyopo, 在美僑胞, "compatriots in America") or Koreans in Japan (jaeil gyopo, 在日僑胞, "compatriots in Japan").
Due to the geographic proximity between China and the Korean Peninsula, population migration of some kind had often occurred throughout history. However, most early ethnic Koreans in China had been assimilated by the Han Chinese, Manchus and Mongols, respectively.:2:75-77 Thus, the overwhelming majority of today's ethnic Korean population in China are descendants of relatively recent Korean emigrants since late Qing dynasty.:48
Koreans in China have a tradition of education. The education level of Koreans in China is above China's national average and one of the highest among ethnic groups in China. The Chinese government is also very supportive in preserving their language and culture. Korean schools from kindergarten to higher education are allowed to teach in Korean language in Yanbian. Yanbian University located in Yanji city is a comprehensive university offering bachelor to doctoral degrees. The university is...
The majority of ethnic Koreans in China have no formal affiliations with a religion. Major religions among ethnic Koreans in China include Buddhism and Christianity(saying mass in Korean).
Most ethnic Koreans in China speak Mandarin Chinese and many also speak fluent Korean as their mother tongue. Many Chinese of Korean descent have ancestral roots and family ties in the Hamgyong region of North Korea and speak the Hamgyŏng dialect of Korean according to North Korean conventions. However, since South Korea has been more prolific in exporting its entertainment culture, more Korean Chinese broadcasters have been using Seoul dialect. The so-called Korean Wave (Hallyu) has influenc...
China has a large number of North Korean refugees, estimated in the tens of thousands. Some North Korean refugees who are unable to obtain transport to South Korea instead marry chaoxianzuand settle down in China, blending into the community; however, they are still subject to deportation if discovered by the authorities. As of 2011[update], there are an estimated 4,000 to 5,000 North Koreans residing as legal resident aliens in China. An increasing number are applying for naturalization as Chinese citizens; this requires a certificate of loss of North Korean nationality, which North Korean authorities have recently become more reluctant to issue. Major North Korean universities, such as the Kim Il-sung University and the Pyongyang University of Foreign Studies, send a few dozen exchange students to Peking Universityand other top-ranked Chinese universities each year. In June 2012, the Los Angeles Times reported that Beijing and Pyongyang had signed an agreement to grant as many as...
After the 1992 normalization of diplomatic relations between the PRC and South Korea, many citizens of South Korea started to settle in Mainland China; large new communities of South Koreans have subsequently formed in Beijing, Shanghai, Dalian and Qingdao. The South Korean government officially recognizes seven Korean international schools in China (in Yanbian, Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Yantai, Qingdao, and Dalian, respectively), all founded between 1997 and 2003. Most of the population of Koreans in Hong Kong consists of South Korea expatriates. Typically, they come to China as employees of South Korean corporations on short-term international assignments; when their assignments are completed, many prefer to stay on in China, using the contacts they have made to start their own consulting businesses or import/export firms. Other South Koreans moved to China on their own after becoming unemployed during the 1997 financial crisis; they used funds they had saved up...
As of 2007[update] there were about 20,000 people of Korean origins in Shenzhen, with the Nanshan and Futian districts having significant numbers. That year the chairperson of the Korean Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Kang Hee-bang, stated that about 10,000 lived in Overseas Chinese Town (OCT). Shekou, the area around Shenzhen University, and Donghai Garden housing estate had other significant concentrations. Donghai Garden began attracting Koreans due to its transportation links and becau...
1. Kim Gyo-gak, the Ksitigarbha at Mount Jiuhua 2. Kim Ho-shang, Korean Ch'an master who introduced the first streams of Ch'an Buddhism to Tibet 3. Senglang (僧朗, in Korean Sungnang), 6th century Goguryeo monk who went to China; his works heavily influenced Jizang and Zhouyoungand the Sanlun school. 4. Gao Xianzhi, a Tang general of Korean Goguryeodescent 5. Gao Yun, Emperor of Later Yan and Northern Yan of Goguryeodescent 6. Li Zhengji, general of the Tang dynasty 7. Li Na, general of the Tan...
1. Jiang Jingshan (姜景山; Korean:강경산), Aerospace scientist, Fellow of Chinese Academy of Engineering 2. Jin Hongguang (金紅光; Korean:김홍광), Physical Chemist, Fellow of Chinese Academy of Sciences 3. Jin Ningyi (金宁一; Korean:김녕일), Virologist, Fellow of Chinese Academy of Engineering 4. Jin Xianzhai (金显宅; Korean:김현택), Oncologist, known as "The Father of Chinese Oncology" 5. Gong Hyeon-U (孔铉佑), Vice Minister of foreign affairs of China and Special Representative of the Chinese Government on the Korean...
Expatriates of other nationalities and their descendants
1. Kwon Ki-ok, first female pilot in China 2. Pak Cholsu(박철수), head representative of the North Korean government-run company, Taep'oong International Investment Group of Korea (조선대풍국제투자그룹) 3. Howie Liu, American-born CEO of Airtable
- Repatriation to Korea
- Korean Organizations in Japan – Chongryon and Mindan
- Integration Into Japanese Society
- Zainichi in The Japanese Labor Market
- See Also
- Further Reading
- External Links
In 2014, there were over 855,725 ethnic Koreans resident in Japan. According to the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, 453,096 South Koreans and 32,461 Koreans(朝鮮人, Chōsen-jin)(those "Koreans" do not necessarily have the North Korean nationality) are registered in 2016.
The modern flow of Koreans to Japan started with the Japan-Korea Treaty of 1876 and increased dramatically after 1920. During World War II, a large number of Koreans were also conscripted by Japan. Another wave of migration started after South Korea was devastated by the Korean War in the 1950s. Also noteworthy was the large number of refugees from the massacres on Jeju Islandby the South Korean government. Statistics regarding Zainichi immigration are scarce. However, in 1988, a Mindan youth...
In late prehistory, in the Iron Age Yayoi period (300 BC to 300 AD), Japanese culture shows[clarify] some Korean influence, though whether this was accompanied by immigration from Korea is debated (see Origin of the Yayoi people). In the later Kofun period (250–538) and Asuka period (538–710) there was some flow of people from the Korean Peninsula, both as immigrants and long-term visitors, notably a number of clans in the Kofun period (see Kofun period#Korean migration). While some families...
Before World War II
After the conclusion of the Japan-Korea Treaty of 1876, Korean students and asylum seekers started to come to Japan, including Bak Yeonghyo, Kim Ok-gyun, and Song Byeong-jun. There were about 800 Koreans living in Japan before Japan annexed Korea. In 1910, as the result of the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty, Japan annexed Korea and all Korean people became part of the nation of the Empire of Japanby law and received Japanese citizenship. In the 1920s, the demand for labor in Japan was high whi...
Repatriation of Zainichi Koreans from Japan conducted under the auspices of the Japanese Red Cross began to receive official support from the Japanese government as early as 1956. A North Korean-sponsored repatriation programme with support of the Chōsen Sōren (The General Association of Korean Residents in Japan) officially began in 1959. In April 1959, Gorō Terao (寺尾 五郎 Terao Gorō), a political activist of the Japanese Communist Party, published a book North of the 38th Parallel (38度線の北), in which he praised North Korea for its rapid development and humanitarianism; numbers of returnees skyrocketed. The Japanese government was in favour of repatriation as a way to rid the country of ethnic minority residents that were discriminated against and regarded as incompatible with Japanese culture.Though the United States government was initially unaware of Tokyo's cooperation with the repatriation programme, they offered no objection after they were informed of it; the US ambassador to J...
Division between Chongryon and Mindan
Out of the two Korean organizations in Japan, the pro-North Chongryon has been the more militant in terms of retaining Koreans' ethnic identity. Its policies included: 1. Operation of about 60 ethnic Korean schools across Japan, initially partly funded by the North Korean government, in which lessons were conducted in Korean. They maintain a strong pro-North Korean ideology, which has sometimes come under criticism from pupils, parents, and the public alike. 2. Discouraging its members from t...
Controversies over Chongryon
For a long time, Chongryon enjoyed unofficial immunity from searches and investigations, partly because authorities were reluctant to carry out any actions which could provoke not only accusations of xenophobia but lead to an international incident. Chongryon has long been suspected of a variety of criminal acts on behalf of North Korea, such as illegal transfer of funds to North Korea and espionage, but no action was taken. However, recent escalating tensions between Japan a...
During the post-World War II period, Zainichi Koreans faced various kinds of discrimination from Japanese society. Due to the San Francisco Peace Treaty, the Japanese government created laws to support Japanese citizens by giving financial support, providing shelters, etc. However, after the treaty was signed, Zainichi Koreans were no longer counted as Japanese citizens, so they were unable to get any support from the government. They were unable to get an insurance certificate from the government, so it was difficult for them to get any medical care. Without medical insurance, Zainichi Koreans were unable to go to hospital since the cost of medication was too high. Another problem caused by this treaty was that the Japanese government created a law which stated that Korean residents in Japan had to be fingerprinted since Zainichi Koreans had two names (their original name and a name given by the Japanese government). Under this law, Zainichi Koreans had to reveal their identity to...
Zainichi Koreans are said to mainly engage in pachinko, restaurants, construction, and civil engineering. Discrimination against Zainichi Koreans in hiring pushed them into so-called 3Ds (dirty, dangerous, and demeaning) industries. Annual sales of pachinko had been about 30 trillion yen since 1993, and Zainichi Koreans and Chongryon accounted for 90% of them.However, the pachinko industry is shrinking because the Japanese government imposed stricter regulations. The number of pachinko parlors decreased by 9.5% between 2012 and 2016 when the number of people playing pachinko dropped to less than 9.4 million. Zainichi Koreans have developed yakiniku restaurants. The honorary president of the All Japan “Yakiniku” Associationis Tae Do Park (Tsumei: Taido Arai). In the 1970s, newcomers started to enter the precious metal industry. Currently, 70% of precious metalproducts are made by certified Zainichi Koreans. Some Zainichi Koreans participate in organized crime. A former member of Sumi...Kim-Wachutka, Jackie (2005). Hidden Treasures: Lives of First-Generation Korean Women in Japan. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-3595-9.Kim-Wachutka, Jackie (2019). Zainichi Korean Women in Japan: Voices. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-138-58485-3.Morris-Suzuki, Tessa (2007). Exodus to North Korea: Shadows from Japan's Cold War. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7425-7938-5.
Sakhalin Koreans are Russian citizens and residents of Korean descent living on Sakhalin Island, who can trace their roots to the immigrants from the Gyeongsang and Jeolla provinces of Korea during the late 1930s and early 1940s, the latter half of the Japanese colonial era.
Overview. The Korean term for the phenomenon of the Korean Wave is Hanryu (Hangul: 한류), more commonly romanized as Hallyu.The term is made of two root words: han (한/韓) meaning "Korean", and ryu (류/流) meaning "flow" or "wave", and referring to the diffusion of Korean culture.