Lebanon (/ ˈ l ɛ b ə n ɒ n,-n ə n / , Arabic: لبنان lubnān, Lebanese Arabic pronunciation: [lɪbˈneːn]), officially known as the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus lies west across the Mediterranean Sea.
Lebanese Druze (Arabic: دروز لبنان , romanized: durūz...
- Michel Aoun
Michel Naim Aoun (Arabic: ميشال نعيم عون , romanized: Mīšāl...
The flag of Lebanon (Arabic: علم لبنان ) is formed of two...
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- Climate Change in Lebanon
- Resources and land use
The country's role in the region, as indeed in the world at large, was shaped by trade. Lebanon is named "the Pearl of the Middle East." It serves as a link between the Mediterranean world and India and East Asia. The merchants of the region exported oil, grain, textiles, metal work, and pottery through the port cities to Western markets. The hilly Mediterranean geography has influenced the history, cuisine, and culture of Lebanon.
The area of Lebanon is 10,452 square kilometres. The country is roughly rectangular in shape, becoming narrower toward the south and the farthest north. Its widest point is 88 kilometres, and its narrowest is 32 kilometres; the average width is about 56 kilometres. Due to the fac
The physical geography of Lebanon is influenced by natural systems that extend outside the country. Thus, the Beqaa Valley is part of the Great Rift system, which stretches from southern Turkey to Mozambique in Africa. Like any mountainous country, Lebanon's physical geography is
The western range, the second major region, is the Lebanon Mountains, sometimes called Mount Lebanon, or Lebanon proper before 1920. Since Roman days the term Mount Lebanon has encompassed this area. Antilibanos was used to designate the eastern range. Geologists believe that the
Lebanon has a Mediterranean climate characterized by a long, semi-hot, and dry summer, and a cold, rainy and snowy winter. Fall is a transitional season with a lowering of temperature and little rain; spring occurs when the winter rains cause the vegetation to revive. Topographical variation creates local modifications of the basic climatic pattern. Along the coast, summers are warm and humid, with little or no rain. Heavy dews form, which are beneficial to agriculture. The daily range of temper
The nature of the geographical location of Lebanon that is in the center of Middle East gives it a favorable climate. With the current global climate change challenges Recently with the, Lebanon began to reveal signs of changes in temperature and rainfalls averages and they are on the rise.
Limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state in a water-deficit region, arable land Land use: arable land: 10.72% permanent crops: 12.06% other: 77.22% Irrigated land: 1,040 km2 Total renewable water resources: 4.5 km3
- Population by religious affiliation
- Geographical distribution of sects in Lebanon
- Religion and society
- Current political and religious issues
Lebanon is an eastern Mediterranean country that is composed of mostly Muslims and Christians. The main two religions are Islam with 61.1% of the citizens and Christianity with 33.7% of the citizens. The Druze are about 5.2% of the citizens. The country has the most religiously diverse society of all states within the Middle East, comprising 18 recognized religious sects. But outside of Lebanon, Lebanese people are mostly Christians. It is also estimated that a large proportion of its population
No official census has been taken since 1932, reflecting the political sensitivity in Lebanon over confessional balance. As a result, the religious affiliation of the Lebanese population is very difficult to establish with certainty and various sources are used to get the possible estimate of the population by religious affiliation. The following are different sources that do not pretend to be fully representative of the religious affiliation of the people of Lebanon. A 2020 study conducted by S
Lebanese Muslims are divided into many sects like Sunnis, Shias, Alawites, and Ismailis. Lebanese Sunnis are mainly residents of the major cities: west Beirut, Tripoli, and Sidon. Sunnis are also present in rural areas including Akkar, Ikleem al Kharoub, and the western Beqaa Val
Lebanese Druze are concentrated south of Mount Lebanon, in the Hasbaya District and Chouf District. Under the Lebanese political division the Druze community is designated as one of the five Lebanese Muslim communities, despite the Druze and Muslims having very different beliefs.
Lebanese Christians are divided into many groups, several types of Catholics for instance the Maronites and Greek Catholics, Greek Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Church of the East and Protestants. Lebanese Maronites are concentrated in the north Beirut, northern part of Mount Leba
Religion plays a big role in politics; some researchers describe the political system in Lebanon as "coming out of the womb of religion and politics". After the independence from France in 1943, the leaders of Lebanon agreed on the distribution of the political positions in the c
Under the terms of an agreement known as the National Pact between the various political and religious leaders of Lebanon, the president of the country must be a Maronite, the Prime Minister must be a Sunni, and the Speaker of Parliament must be a Shia. Although Lebanon is a secular country, family matters such as marriage, divorce and inheritance are still handled by the religious authorities representing a person's faith. Calls for civil marriage are unanimously rejected by the religious autho
Detail of the dome of the Khatem al-Anbiyaa Mosque in downtown Beirut
- Executive branch
- Judicial branch
- Political parties and elections
Lebanon is a parliamentary democratic republic within the overall framework of confessionalism, a form of consociationalism in which the highest offices are proportionately reserved for representatives from certain religious communities. The constitution of Lebanon grants the people the right to change their government. Article 7 of Lebanon's Constitution also states that all Lebanese are equal before the law, and are "equally bound by public obligations and duties without any distinction" Meani
Since the emergence of the post-1943 state and after the destruction of the Ottoman Caliphate, national policy has been determined largely by a relatively restricted group of traditional regional and sectarian leaders. The 1943 National Pact, an unwritten agreement that established the political foundations of modern Lebanon, allocated political power on an essentially confessional system based on the 1932 census. Seats in parliament were divided on a 6-to-5 ratio of Christians to Muslims, until
Lebanon operates under a strong semi-presidential system. This system is unique in that it grants the president wide unilateral discretion, does not make him accountable to Parliament, yet is elected by the Parliament. The President has the sole power to appoint the Prime Ministe
Lebanon is a civil law country. Its judicial branch is composed of: 1. Ordinary Courts: One Court of Cassation composed of nine chambers Courts of Appeal Courts of First Instance 2. Special Courts: The Constitutional Council rules on constitutionality of laws The Supreme Council hears charges against the president and prime minister as needed. A system of military courts that also has jurisdiction over civilians for the crimes of espionage, treason, and other crimes that are considered to be sec
Lebanon has numerous political parties, but they play a much less significant role in Lebanese politics than they do in most parliamentary democracies. Many of the "parties" are simply lists of candidates endorsed by a prominent national or local figure. Loose coalitions, usually organized locally, are formed for electoral purposes by negotiation among clan leaders and candidates representing various religious communities; such coalitions usually exist only for the election, and rarely form a co
Maoz based the film on his experience as a young Israeli conscript during the 1982 Lebanon War. The British newspaper The Guardian has described it as an anti-war film.
The film depicts warfare as witnessed exclusively from the inside of a Merkava battle tank. The crew's window to the outside world is a gunsight. As a way of adding realism to the effect, every change in the horizontal and vertical viewing directions is accompanied by the hydraulic whine of the traversing gun turret. The film is set during the 1982 Lebanon War. There are four Israeli soldiers inside: the driver in the tank's hull, the loader, the gunner and the commander in the turret. For part
The film received universal acclaim from film critics. Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reports that 90% out of 97 professional critics gave the film a positive review, with a rating average of 7.7/10 and the site consensus being: "A powerful and personal account of war on the front line, writer-director Samuel Maoz takes the viewer inside an Israeli tank to deliver an exhausting, original film."
Tyre juts out from the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and is located about 80 km (50 mi) south of Beirut.It originally consisted of two distinct urban centres: Tyre itself, which was on an island just offshore, and the associated settlement of Ushu on the adjacent mainland, later called Palaetyrus, meaning "Old Tyre" in Ancient Greek.
State of Greater Lebanon, part of the French Mandate (1926–1943) No. Portrait Name (Birth–Death) Term of office Political party Took office Left office Time in office 1 Auguste Adib Pacha أوغست أديب باشا (1859–1936) 31 May 1926 5 May 1927 339 days Independent: 2 Bechara Khoury بشارة الخوري (1890–1964) 5 May 1927