Linux (/ ˈ l i n ʊ k s / LEEN-uuks or / ˈ l ɪ n ʊ k s / LIN-uuks) is a family of open-source Unix-like operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991, by Linus Torvalds.
A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system made from a software collection that is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system.
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- Events leading to creation
- The creation of Linux
- Linux under the GNU GPL
- GNU/Linux naming controversy
Linux began in 1991 as a personal project by Finnish student Linus Torvalds: to create a new free operating system kernel. The resulting Linux kernel has been marked by constant growth throughout its history. Since the initial release of its source code in 1991, it has grown from a small number of C files under a license prohibiting commercial distribution to the 4.15 version in 2018 with more than 23.3 million lines of source code, not counting comments, under the GNU General Public License v2.
After AT&T had dropped out of the Multics project, the Unix operating system was conceived and implemented by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie in 1969 and first released in 1970. Later they rewrote it in a new programming language, C, to make it portable. The availability and portability of Unix caused it to be widely adopted, copied and modified by academic institutions and businesses. In 1977, the Berkeley Software Distribution was developed by the Computer Systems Research Group from UC Berkel
In 1991, while studying computer science at University of Helsinki, Linus Torvalds began a project that later became the Linux kernel. He wrote the program specifically for the hardware he was using and independent of an operating system because he wanted to use the functions of his new PC with an 80386 processor. Development was done on MINIX using the GNU C Compiler. As Torvalds wrote in his book Just for Fun, he eventually ended up writing an operating system kernel. On 25 August 1991, he ann
Linus Torvalds had wanted to call his invention Freax, a portmanteau of "free", "freak", and "x". During the start of his work on the system, he stored the files under the name "Freax" for about half of a year. Torvalds had already considered the name "Linux", but initially dismissed it as too egotistical. In order to facilitate development, the files were uploaded to the FTP server of FUNET in September 1991. Ari Lemmke at Helsinki University of Technology, who was one of the volunteer administ
Torvalds first published the Linux kernel under its own licence, which had a restriction on commercial activity. The software to use with the kernel was software developed as part of the GNU project licensed under the GNU General Public License, a free software license. The first release of the Linux kernel, Linux 0.01, included a binary of GNU's Bash shell. In the "Notes for linux release 0.01", Torvalds lists the GNU software that is required to run Linux: Sadly, a kernel by itself gets you no
The designation "Linux" was initially used by Torvalds only for the Linux kernel. The kernel was, however, frequently used together with other software, especially that of the GNU project. This quickly became the most popular adoption of GNU software. In June 1994 in GNU's bulletin, Linux was referred to as a "free UNIX clone", and the Debian project began calling its product Debian GNU/Linux. In May 1996, Richard Stallman published the editor Emacs 19.31, in which the type of system was renamed
A Linux distribution developed in China and optimized for the Chinese market. Based on Asianux. Rocks Cluster Distribution: A Linux distribution for building a High-Performance Computing computer cluster, with a recent release supporting Cloud computing.DistributionDescriptionBackBox is a Linux distribution based on Ubuntu. It has been developed to perform penetration tests and security assessments. Designed to be fast, easy to use and provide a minimal yet complete desktop environment, thanks to its own software repositories, always being updated to the latest stable version of the most used and best known ethical hacking tools.BackSlash Linux is an Ubuntu and Debian-based operating system for AMD64 and Intel x64 based Personal Computers developed in India. It is based on free software and every release of the operating System is named after the characters of the Disney blockbuster, Frozen.An Ubuntu-based Linux distribution featuring the Moksha Desktop environment and targeting users who want a minimum of preinstalled software or low system requirements.Ubuntu-based distribution designed to mimic the desktop appearance and functionality of Chrome OS.
Linux é um termo popularmente empregado para se referir a sistemas operativos (português europeu) ou sistemas operacionais (português brasileiro) que utilizam o Kernel Linux.  O núcleo (ou kernel, em Alemão) foi desenvolvido pelo programador finlandês Linus Torvalds, inspirado no sistema Minix.
Kali Linux is distributed in 32-bit and 64-bit images for use on hosts based on the x86 instruction set and as an image for the ARM architecture for use on the Beagle Board computer and Samsung's ARM Chromebook. The developers of Kali Linux aim to make Kali Linux available for even more ARM devices.
Gentoo Linux (pronounced / ˈ dʒ ɛ n t uː / JEN-too) is a Linux distribution built using the Portage package management system.Unlike a binary software distribution, the source code is compiled locally according to the user's preferences and is often optimized for the specific type of computer.
A Linux operációs rendszer, a szabad szoftverek és a nyílt forráskódú programok egyik legismertebb példája.. A „Linux” elnevezés szigorú értelemben véve a Linux-rendszermagot jelenti, amelyet Linus Torvalds kezdett el fejleszteni 1991-ben.