The liver is an organ only found in vertebrates which detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion and growth. In humans, it is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, below the diaphragm.
- Liver Transplantation
Liver transplantation or hepatic transplantation is the...
- Liver Transplantation
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Liver damage is also a clinical feature of alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency and glycogen storage disease type II. In transthyretin-related hereditary amyloidosis, the liver produces a mutated transthyretin protein which has severe neurodegenerative or cardiopathic effects. Liver transplantation can give a curative treatment option.
Cirrhosis, also known as liver cirrhosis or hepatic cirrhosis, is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage. This damage is characterized by the replacement of normal liver tissue by scar tissue.
- Signs and symptoms
Fatty liver disease, also known as hepatic steatosis, is a condition where excess fat builds up in the liver. Often there are no or few symptoms. Occasionally there may be tiredness or pain in the upper right side of the abdomen. Complications may include cirrhosis, liver cancer, and esophageal varices. There are two types of fatty liver disease: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease. NAFLD is made up of simple fatty liver and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The primary ri
Often there are no or few symptoms. Occasionally there may be tiredness or pain in the upper right side of the abdomen.
Fatty liver is commonly associated with metabolic syndrome, but can also be due to any one of many causes: 1. Alcohol Alcoholism is one of the causes of fatty liver due to production of toxic metabolites like aldehydes during metabolism of alcohol in the liver. This phenomenon most commonly occurs with chronic alcoholism. 2. Metabolic abetalipoproteinemia, glycogen storage diseases, Weber–Christian disease, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, lipodystrophy 3. Nutritional obesity, malnutrition ...
Fatty change represents the intracytoplasmatic accumulation of triglycerides. At the beginning, the hepatocytes present small fat vacuoles around the nucleus. In this stage, liver cells are filled with multiple fat droplets that do not displace the centrally located nucleus. In the late stages, the size of the vacuoles increases, pushing the nucleus to the periphery of the cell, giving characteristic signet ring appearance. These vesicles are well-delineated and optically "empty" because fats di
Most individuals are asymptomatic and are usually discovered incidentally because of abnormal liver function tests or hepatomegaly noted in unrelated medical conditions. Elevated liver enzymes are found in 50% of patients with simple steatosis. The serum alanine transaminase level usually is greater than the aspartate transaminase level in the nonalcoholic variant and the opposite in alcoholic FLD. Simple blood test may help to determine the magnitude of the disease by assessing the degree of li
Decreasing caloric intake by at least 30% or by approximately 750–1,000 kcal/day results in improvement in hepatic steatosis. For people with NAFLD or NASH, weight loss via a combination of diet and exercise was shown to improve or resolve the disease. In more serious cases, medications that decrease insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and those that induce weight loss such as bariatric surgery as well as Vitamin E have been shown to improve or resolve liver function. Bariatric surgery ...
The liver is an organ in the abdomen. It is part of the gastrointestinal system. Sometimes people use hepar- or hepat- as a prefix when they talk about the liver. Liver and digestive system in a person
- Signs and symptoms
Liver cancer, also known as hepatic cancer and primary hepatic cancer, is cancer that starts in the liver. Cancer which has spread from elsewhere to the liver, known as liver metastasis, is more common than that which starts in the liver. Symptoms of liver cancer may include a lump or pain in the right side below the rib cage, swelling of the abdomen, yellowish skin, easy bruising, weight loss and weakness. The leading cause of liver cancer is cirrhosis due to hepatitis B, hepatitis C or alcohol
Because liver cancer is an umbrella term for many types of cancer, the signs and symptoms depend on what type of cancer is present. Cholangiocarcinoma is associated with sweating, jaundice, abdominal pain, weight loss and liver enlargement. Hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with abdominal mass, abdominal pain, emesis, anemia, back pain, jaundice, itching, weight loss and fever.
Viral infection with either hepatitis C virus or Hepatitis B virus is the chief cause of liver cancer in the world today, accounting for 80% of hepatocellular carcinoma. The viruses cause HCC because massive inflammation, fibrosis, and eventual cirrhosis occurs within the liver.
In addition to virus-related cirrhosis described above, other causes of cirrhosis can lead to HCC. Alcohol intake correlates with risk of HCC, and the risk is far greater in individuals with an alcohol-induced cirrhotic liver. There are a few disorders that are known to cause cir
Aflatoxin exposure can lead to the development of HCC. The aflatoxins are a group of chemicals produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Food contamination by the fungi leads to ingestion of the chemicals, which are very toxic to the liver. Common foodstuffs co
Many imaging modalities are used to aid in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer. For HCC these include medical ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. When imaging the liver with ultrasound, a mass greater than 2 cm has more than 95% chance of being HCC. The majority of cholangiocarcimas occur in the hilar region of the liver, and often present as bile duct obstruction. If the cause of obstruction is suspected to be malignant, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatograp
Prevention of cancers can be separated into primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Primary prevention preemptively reduces exposure to a risk factor for liver cancer. One of the most successful primary liver cancer preventions is vaccination against hepatitis B. Vaccination against the hepatitis C virus is currently unavailable. Other forms of primary prevention are aimed at limiting transmission of these viruses by promoting safe injection practices, screening blood donation products, and
Partial surgical resection is the optimal treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma when patients have sufficient hepatic function reserve. Increased risk of complications such as liver failure can occur with resection of cirrhotic livers. 5-year survival rates after resection have
Resection is an option in cholangiocarcinoma, but fewer than 30% of cases of cholangiocarcinoma are resectable at diagnosis. After surgery, recurrence rates are up to 60%. Liver transplant may be used where partial resection is not an option, and adjuvant chemoradiation may benef
Removing the tumor by either surgical resection or liver transplant can be used in the treatment of hepatoblastoma. In some cases surgery can offer a cure. Chemotherapy may be used before and after surgery and transplant. Chemotherapy, including cisplatin, vincristine, cyclophosp
- Standard liver panel
- Other tests
Liver function tests, also referred to as a hepatic panel, are groups of blood tests that provide information about the state of a patient's liver. These tests include prothrombin time, activated Partial Thromboplastin Time, albumin, bilirubin, and others. The liver transaminases aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase are useful biomarkers of liver injury in a patient with some degree of intact liver function. Most liver diseases cause only mild symptoms initially, but these diseases mu
Although example reference ranges are given, these will vary depending on age, gender and his/her health, ethnicity, method of analysis, and units of measurement. Individual results should always be interpreted using the reference range provided by the laboratory that performed the test.
Other tests are requested alongside LFT to rule out specific causes.
The liver is a vital organ o the digeestive seestem present in vertebrates an some ither ainimals. It haes a wide range o functions, includin detoxification, protein synthesis, an production o biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD), also called alcohol-related liver disease (ARLD), is a term that encompasses the liver manifestations of alcohol overconsumption, including fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and chronic hepatitis with liver fibrosis or cirrhosis. It is the major cause of liver disease in Western countries.
A liver shot or liver punch is a punch, kick, or knee strike to the right side of the ribcage that damages the liver.Blunt force to the liver can be excruciatingly painful, and an especially effective shot will incapacitate a person at once.