Mandatory Palestine (Arabic: فلسطين Filasṭīn; Hebrew: פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י) Pālēśtīnā (EY), where "EY" indicates Eretz Yisrael Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity established between 1920–1948 in the region of Palestine under the terms of the League of Nations Mandate for Palestine.
British Mandate of Palestine note: "Population of Palestine before 1948" does not differentiate between the Bedouin who were natives, and other Muslims (such as c.100.000 refugees of the Hejaz Wars who entered the area in the beginning of the 20th century), and is therefore misleading as regards this item.
18 February - British Foreign Minister Ernest Bevin announces that the United Kingdom has decided to give up its mandate over Palestine and allow the United Nations to determine the country's future. 3 March - 13 people are killed in a raid on a British officer's club in Jerusalem by the Irgun.
Mandatory Palestine (1920 - 1948) was a British protectorate established by the League of Nations upon the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire after World War One The main article for this category is Mandatory Palestine .
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The intercommunal conflict in Mandatory Palestine was the civil, political and armed struggle between Palestinian Arabs and Jewish Yishuv during the British rule in Mandatory Palestine, beginning from the violent spillover of the Franco-Syrian War in 1920 and until the onset of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War
- 1 March 1920 – 14 May 1948, (28 years, 2 months, 1 week and 6 days)
- Before 1925 citizenship law
- Status of residents: 1925 law
- After 1948
Mandatory Palestine passports were travel documents issued by British authorities in Mandatory Palestine to residents between 1925 and 1948. The first brown-covered passport appeared around 1927, following the issue of the Palestinian Citizenship Order, 1925. From 1926 to 1935 alone approximately 70,000 of such travel documents were issued.
Before the citizenship law of 1925, the Government of Palestine issued British passports to those with British nationality, and two types of travel document to others
The status of Mandatory Palestine's citizenship was not legally defined until 1925. Mandatory Palestine's citizenship and the various means of obtaining it was defined in an Order in Council of 24 July 1925. Turkish subjects habitually resident in Palestine on the first day of August 1925 automatically became citizens unless they opted to reject it. Many other classes of people were able to apply for citizenship, which would be granted at the discretion of the High Commissioner. Although the nat
Mandatory Palestine passports ceased to be valid on the termination of the Mandate on 15 May 1948. Even so, in the early 1950s, United Nations officials described the "worn dog-eared Palestine passport issued in Mandate days by a government that no longer legally exists" as "mementos of identity that were treasured by refugees". Israeli, All-Palestine Government passports and Jordanian passports were offered to former British Mandate subjects according to the citizenship they acquired in the aft
Mandatory Palestine: the territory and its history between 1920 and 1948 This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title British Mandate of Palestine . If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article.
- History of Palestine Under The British Mandate
- Government and Institutions
- See Also
- Further Reading
- External Links
Following its occupation by British troops in 1917–1918, Palestine was governed by the Occupied Enemy Territory Administration. In July 1920, the military administration was replaced by a civilian administration headed by a High Commissioner. The first High Commissioner, Herbert Samuel, a Zionist recent cabinet minister, arrived in Palestine on 20 June 1920, to take up his appointment from 1 July. Following the arrival of the British, Muslim-Christian Associations were established in all the major towns. In 1919 they joined to hold the first Palestine Arab Congress in Jerusalem. Its main platforms were a call for representative government and opposition to the Balfour Declaration. The Zionist Commission was formed in March 1918 and was active in promoting Zionist objectives in Palestine. On 19 April 1920, elections were held for the Assembly of Representatives of the Palestinian Jewish community.The Zionist Commission received official recognition in 1922 as representative of the Pa...
The name given to the Mandate's territory was "Palestine", in accordance with European traditions. The term Palestine was coined in the Western culture from the name of Palaestina province of the Roman (Syria-Palaestina) and later Byzantine Empire (Palaestina Prima and Palaestina Secunda).The Mandate charter stipulated that Mandatory Palestine would have three official languages, namely English, Arabic and Hebrew. In 1926, the British authorities formally dec...
The resolution of the San Remo Conference contained a safeguarding clause for the existing rights of the non-Jewish communities. The conference accepted the terms of the Mandate with reference to Palestine, on the understanding that there was inserted in the process-verbal a legal undertaking by the Mandatory Power that it would not involve the surrender of the rights hitherto enjoyed by the non-Jewish communities in Palestine.The draft mandates for Mesopotamia and Palestine, and all of the p...
The Jewish Yishuv
The conquest of the Ottoman Syria by the British forces in 1917, found a mixed community in the region, with Palestine, the southern part of the Ottoman Syria, containing a mixed population of Muslims, Christians, Jews and Druze. In this period, the Jewish community (Yishuv) in Palestine was divided at the time to the traditional Jewish communities in cities (the Old Yishuv), which had existed for centuries, and the newly established agricultural Zionist communities (the New Yishuv), establis...
British censuses and estimations
In 1920, the majority of the approximately 750,000 people in this multi-ethnic region were Arabic-speaking Muslims, including a Bedouin population (estimated at 103,331 at the time of the 1922 censusand concentrated in the Beersheba area and the region south and east of it), as well as Jews (who comprised some 11% of the total) and smaller groups of Druze, Syrians, Sudanese, Circassians, Egyptians, Greeks, and Hejazi Arabs. 1. The first censusof 1922 showed a population of 757,182, of whom 78...
The following table gives the religious demography of each of the 16 districtsof the Mandate in 1945.
The Mandate territory was divided into administrative regions known as districts and administer by the office of the British High Commissioner for Palestine. Britain continued the Millet system of the Ottoman Empire whereby all matters of a religious nature and personal status were within the jurisdiction of Muslim courts and the courts of other recognised religions, called confessional communities. The High Commissioner established the Orthodox Rabbinate and retained a modified Millet system which only recognised eleven religious communities: Muslims, Jews and nine Christian denominations (none of which were Christian Protestant churches). All those who were not members of these recognised communities were excluded from the Millet arrangement. As a result, there was no possibility, for example, of marriages between confessional communities, and there were no civil marriages. Personal contacts between communities were nominal.
Between 1922 and 1947, the annual growth rate of the Jewish sector of the economy was 13.2%, mainly due to immigration and foreign capital, while that of the Arab was 6.5%. Per capita, these figures were 4.8% and 3.6% respectively. By 1936, the Jewish sector earned 2.6 times as much as Arabs.Compared to other Arab countries, the Palestinian Arab individuals earned slightly more. The Jaffa Electric Company was founded in 1923 by Pinhas Rutenberg, and was later absorbed into a newly created Palestine Electric Company. Palestine Airways was founded in 1934, Angel Bakeries in 1927, and the Tnuvadairy in 1926. Electric current mainly flowed to Jewish industry, following it to its nestled locations in Tel Aviv and Haifa. Although Tel Aviv had by far more workshops and factories, the demand for electric power for industry was roughly the same for both cities by the early 1930s. The country's largest industrial zone was in Haifa, where many housing projects were built for employees. On the...
Under the British Mandate, the country developed economically and culturally. In 1919 the Jewish community founded a centralised Hebrew school system, and the following year established the Assembly of Representatives, the Jewish National Council and the Histadrut labour federation. The Technionuniversity was founded in 1924, and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1925. Literacy rates in 1932 were 86% for the Jews compared to 22% for the Palestinian Arabs, but Arab literacy rates steadily increased thereafter. Palestinian Arabs compared favorably in this respect to residents of Egypt and Turkey, but unfavourably to the Lebanese.Ernest BevinBritish Mandate for Palestine passportFaisal–Weizmann Agreement(1919)Herbert DowbigginPappé, Ilan (15 August 1994). "Introduction". The Making of the Arab–Israeli Conflict, 1947–1951. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-85043-819-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=zAJZCKAwtPMC&pg=PR5&cad=0_1#PP...Khalidi, Rashid (2006). The Iron Cage: The Story of the Palestinian Struggle for Statehood. Beacon Press. ISBN 0-8070-0308-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=xp3MQavDxjIC. Retrieved 2 May 2009.Khalidi, Rashid (2007) [1st ed. 2001]. "The Palestinians and 1948: the underlying causes of failure". In Eugene L. Rogan & Avi Shlaim. The War for Palestine: Rewriting the History of 1948 (2nd ed.)...Khalidi, Walid (1987) [Original in 1971]. From Haven to Conquest: Readings in Zionism and the Palestine Problem Until 1948. Institute for Palestine Studies. ISBN 0-88728-155-9. http://books.google....Wright, Quincy, The Palestine Problem, Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 41, No. 3 (September, 1926), pp. 384–412, via JSTORHanna, Paul Lamont, "British Policy in Palestine", Washington, D.C., American Council on Public Affairs, (1942)Miller, Rory, ed. Britain, Palestine and Empire: The Mandate Years(2010)Ravndal, Ellen Jenny. "Exit Britain: British Withdrawal From the Palestine Mandate in the Early Cold War, 1947–1948," Diplomacy and Statecraft,(Sept 2010) 21#3 pp 416–433.