A manual transmission (also known as a manual gearbox; abbreviated as MT, and sometimes called a standard transmission in the US) is a multi-speed motor vehicle transmission system, where gear changes require the driver to manually select the gears by operating a gear stick and clutch (which is usually a foot pedal for cars, or a hand lever for motorcycles).
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- Design and operation
- Usage in passenger cars
Automated manual transmission, also known as a clutchless manual, denotes a type of multi-speed motor vehicle transmission system that is closely based on the mechanical design and internal build of a conventional manual transmission, and uses automation to operate either the clutch, and/or the gear shifting. Earlier versions of these transmissions that are semi-automatic in operation, such as Autostick, can only control the clutch system automatically — often using various forms of...
Automated manual transmissions can be semi-automatic or fully-automatic in operation. Several different system to automate the clutch and/or shifting have been used over the years, but they will generally use one of the following methods of actuation for the clutch and/or shifting: hydraulic or electro-hydraulic actuation, electro-mechanical, pneumatic, electromagnetic, or even purely electrical by means of an electric motor. Gear shifting, clutch actuation, shift-timing, and rev-matching are al
The automated manual transmission has its origins in early clutchless manual transmissions that began to appear on mass-production cars in the 1940s and 1950s. An early example of this transmission was introduced with the Hudson Commodore in 1942, called Drive-Master. This unit was an early semi-automatic transmission, based on the design of a conventional manual transmission which used a servo-controlled vacuum-operated clutch system, with three different gear shifting modes, at the touch of a
A manual transmission, kent as a manual gearbox, a standard transmission or colloquially in some countries (e.g. the United States) as a stick shift an aw, is a teep o transmission uised in motor vehicle applications.
A sequential manual transmission (like the kind of gearbox used on a fully-manual motorcycle) is a type of multi-speed non-synchronous manual transmission, which only allows the driver to select either the next gear (e.g., shifting from second gear to first gear) or the previous gear (e.g. shifting from second gear to third gear), in a ...
A non-synchronous transmission— also called a crash gearbox— is a form of manual transmission based on gears that do not use synchronizing mechanisms.They require the driver to manually synchronize the transmission's input speed (engine RPM) and output speed (driveshaft speed).
- Design and operation
- Usage in passenger cars
- Usage in motorcycles
- Usage in motor racing
- Usage in other vehicles
Semi-automatic transmission denotes a multi-speed motor vehicle transmission where part of its operation is automated, but the driver's input is still required to start from a standstill and to manually change gears. Most semi-automatic transmissions used in cars and motorcycles are based on conventional manual transmissions or a sequential manual transmission, but use an automatic clutch system. However, some semi-automatic transmissions have also been based on standard hydraulic automatic tran
Semi-automatics facilitate easier gear shifts by removing the need to depress a clutch pedal or lever at the same time as changing gears. Depending on the mechanical build, design, and age of the vehicle, they can use anything from, or a combination of hydraulic, pneumatic, or electric servos, solenoids, electrical sensors, electric switches, motors, processors, and actuators, to execute gear shifts when requested by the driver, typically when the driver moves or touches and moves the gearshift.
In 1901, Amédée Bollée developed a method of shifting gears which did not require the use of a clutch and was activated by a ring mounted within the steering wheel. One car using this system was the 1912 Bollée Type F Torpedo.
Prior to the arrival of the first mass-produced hydraulic automatic transmission in 1940, several American manufacturers offered various devices to reduce the amount of clutch or gear shifter usage required. These devices were intended to reduce the difficulty of operating the un
The Automotive Products Manumatic system, available on the 1953 Ford Anglia 100E was a vacuum-powered automatic clutch system that was actuated by a switch that was triggered whenever the gear lever was moved. The system could control the throttle cable and could vary the rate of
An early example for motorcycles was the use of an automatic centrifugal clutch in the early 1960s by the Czechoslovakian manufacturer Jawa Moto. This design was also used without Jawa's permission in the 1965 Honda Cub 50, which resulted in Jawa suing Honda for patent infringement. Eventually, Honda agreed to pay royalties for each motorcycle that used the Jawa design.
Semi-automatic transmissions in racing cars are typically operated by paddle-shift systems, which is connected to a designated Gearbox control unit. The first Formula One car to use a semi-automatic transmission was the 1989 Ferrari 640. This system used electro-hydraulic actuators, powered by hydraulic fluid, and electrical solenoids for controlling the clutch and shifting, and was operated by paddle shifters mounted behind the steering wheel. Another paddle on the steering wheel controlled the
Other notable uses for semi-automatic transmissions include: 1. During the 1940s to 1960s, many small diesels shunting locomotives used epicyclic semi-automatic transmissions. For example, the British Rail Class 03 and British Rail Class 04 used the Wilson-Drewry CA5 R7 transmission. 2. Sinclair S.S.S. Powerflow: Used from the 1950s to the early 1960s in Huwood-Hudswell diesel mining locomotives, the British Rail Class D2/7 and the British Rail Class D2/12. The Powerflow design is the layshaft-t
The Chrysler NSG370 is a six-speed overdrive manual transmission sourced from Mercedes and built in the Stuttgart Transmission Plant. It is Jeep's first six-speed manual transmission and Chrysler's second after the Dodge Viper T-56. The NSG370 does not use standard gear oil for lubrication. This transmission utilizes bronze synchronizer collars ...
Manual 1960-1967 Ford/Mercury HED 3-speed transmission (non-syncro first gear) 1968- Ford Type E (aka Built or 2000e) 4-speed transmission Came in Anglia 105E, Cortina MkI, Lotus Cortina MkI, Cortina MkII to up to '68, Consul Classic, Consul Capri, Corsair, Escort TC, Mexico Mk1 and RS1600 MkI.
Automatic transmissions Early models. The GM Hydra-Matic was a success and installed in the majority of GM models by 1950. Through the 1950s, all makers were working on their own automatic transmission, with four more developed inside GM alone.
- related to: Manual transmission wikipedia