Maryland has an area of 12,406.68 square miles (32,133.2 km 2) and is comparable in overall area with Belgium [11,787 square miles (30,530 km 2)]. It is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii [10,930.98 square miles (28,311.1 km 2)], the next smallest state.
Maryland was a border state, straddling the North and South. As in Virginia and Delaware, some planters in Maryland had freed their slaves in the years after the Revolutionary War. By 1860 Maryland's free black population comprised 49.1% of the total of African Americans in the state.
Maryland is the only state with a motto in Italian. Maryland has many places important to the American Revolutionary War , the War of 1812 , and the American Civil War . One of these places is Fort McHenry , which defended against the British Empire during the War of 1812.
- Origins in the 17th Century
- Religious conflict
- The Protestant Revolution of 1689
The Province of Maryland was an English and later British colony in North America that existed from 1632 until 1776, when it joined the other twelve of the Thirteen Colonies in rebellion against Great Britain and became the U.S. state of Maryland. Its first settlement and capital was St. Mary's City, in the southern end of St. Mary's County, which is a peninsula in the Chesapeake Bay and is also bordered by four tidal rivers. The province began as a proprietary colony of the English Lord Baltimo
The Catholic George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore,, former Secretary of State to His Majesty, King Charles I, wished to create a haven for English Catholics in the New World. After having visited the Americas and founded a colony in the future Canadian province of Newfoundland cal
In Maryland, Baltimore sought to create a haven for English Catholics and to demonstrate that Catholics and Protestants could live together peacefully, even issuing the Act Concerning Religion in matters of religion. The 1st Lord Baltimore was himself a convert to Catholicism, a
In 1642, the Province of Maryland declared war on the indigenous Susquehannock nation. The Susquehannock defeated Maryland in 1644. As a result, the Conestoga traded almost exclusively with New Sweden to the north while the colony was young. The Susquehannocks remained in an inte
Frederick died in 1771, by which time relations between Britain and her American colonies were fast deteriorating. In his will, Frederick left his proprietary Palatinate of Maryland to his eldest illegitimate son, Henry Harford, then aged just 13. The colony, perhaps grateful to
Lord Baltimore held all the land directly from the King for the payment of "two Indian arrowheads annually and one fifth of all gold and silver found in the colony." Maryland's foundation charter was drafted in feudal terms and based on the practices of the ancient County Palatin
Although Maryland was an early pioneer of religious toleration in the British colonies, religious strife among Anglicans, Puritans, Roman Catholics, and Quakers was common in the early years, and Puritan rebels briefly seized control of the province. In 1644 the dispute with William Claiborne led to armed conflict. Claiborne seized Kent Island while his associate, the pro-Parliament Puritan Richard Ingle, took over St. Mary's. Both used religion as a tool to gain popular support. From 1644 to 16
In 1689, Maryland Puritans, by now a substantial majority in the colony, revolted against the proprietary government, in part because of the apparent preferment of Catholics like Colonel Henry Darnall to official positions of power. Led by Colonel John Coode, an army of 700 Puritans defeated a proprietarial army led by Colonel Darnall. Darnall later wrote: "Wee being in this condition and no hope left of quieting the people thus enraged, to prevent effusion of blood, capitulated and surrendered.
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- Efforts to repeal, replace, or revise Maryland's state song
- Other uses of the melody
"Maryland, My Maryland" is the regional anthem of the U.S. state of Maryland from 1939 to present. The song is set to the melody of "Lauriger Horatius" — the same tune "O Tannenbaum" was taken from. The lyrics are from a nine-stanza poem written by James Ryder Randall in 1861. The state's general assembly adopted "Maryland, My Maryland" as the state song on April 29, 1939. After more than ten attempts to change the state song, over 40 years, on March 22, 2021, both houses of the General...
The poem was a result of events at the beginning of the Civil War. During the secession crisis, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln ordered U.S. troops to be brought to Washington, D.C., to protect the capital and to prepare for war with the seceding southern states. Many of these troops were brought through Baltimore City, a major transportation hub. There was considerable Confederate sympathy in Maryland at the time, as well as a large number of residents who objected to waging a war against their
I The despot's heel is on thy shore, Maryland! His torch is at thy temple door, Maryland! Avenge the patriotic gore That flecked the streets of Baltimore, And be the battle queen of yore, Maryland! My Maryland! II Hark to an exiled son's appeal, Maryland! My mother State! to thee I kneel, Maryland! For life and death, for woe and weal, Thy peerless chivalry reveal, And gird thy beauteous limbs with steel, Maryland! My Maryland! III Thou wilt not cower in the dust, Maryland! Thy beaming sword sha
Unsuccessful efforts to revise the lyrics to the song or to repeal or replace the song altogether were attempted by members of the Maryland General Assembly in 1974, 1980, 1984, 2001, 2002, 2009, 2016, 2018, and 2019. In July 2015, Delegate Peter A. Hammen, chairman of the Maryland House of Delegates House Health and Government Operations Committee, asked the Maryland State Archives to form an advisory panel to review the song. The panel issued a report in December 2015, that suggested that it w
The songs "Michigan, My Michigan", "Florida, My Florida", and "The Song of Iowa" are set to the same tune as "Maryland, My Maryland". The College of the Holy Cross and St. Bonaventure University both use the tune for their respective alma maters. In the film version of Gone with the Wind, "Maryland, My Maryland" is played at the opening scene of the Charity Ball when Scarlett and Melanie are reacquainted with Rhett Butler. Kid Ory's Creole Jazz Band recorded an instrumental version of "Maryland,
- Notable landmarks
Cumberland is a city in and the county seat of Allegany County, Maryland, United States. It is the primary city of the Cumberland, MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. At the 2010 census, the city had a population of 20,859, and the metropolitan area had a population of 103,299. Located on the Potomac River, Cumberland is a regional business and commercial center for Western Maryland and the Potomac Highlands of West Virginia. Historically Cumberland was known as the "Queen City", as it was once
Cumberland was named by English colonists after the son of King George II, Prince William, the Duke of Cumberland. It is built on the site of the mid-18th century Fort Cumberland, the starting point for British General Edward Braddock's ill-fated attack on the French stronghold of Fort Duquesne during the French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War between the French and the British. This area had been settled for thousands of years by indigenous peoples. The fort was
Cumberland is in the Ridge and Valley physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains at 39°38′52″N 78°45′46″W / 39.647687°N 78.762869°W / 39.647687; -78.762869, at the junction of the North Branch of the Potomac River and Wills Creek. The majority of the land within the city lies in a valley created by the junction of these two streams. Interstate 68 runs through the city in an east/west direction, as does Alternate U.S. 40, the Old National Road. U.S. Highway 220 ...
As of the census of 2010, there were 20,859 people, 9,223 households, and 4,982 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,069.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 10,914 housing units at an average density of 1,082.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of th
A block west of the downtown pedestrian mall is the Western Maryland Railway Station. This early 20th-century train station is home to the Western Maryland Scenic Railroad, known regionally as "Mountain Thunder". The Western Maryland Scenic Railroad offers three hour round trip t
Downtown Cumberland's Arts & Entertainment District is home to the Allegany Arts Council and its Saville Gallery, the Allegany Museum, the Cumberland Theatre, the Arts at Canal Place Cooperative Gallery, the New Embassy Theatre, the Cumberland Music Academy, MettleArts Studio & F
Canal Place is located at the western terminus of the C&O Canal. A national park has been created in the city center at the intersection of the railroad, C&O Canal, and Allegheny Highlands Trail of Maryland at Canal Place. While at the Heritage Area, visitors can ride the Western
Some of Cumberland's most architecturally significant homes are located in the Washington Street Historic District. Considered the elite residential area when the city was at its economic peak, Washington Street was home to the region's leading citizens including the president of the C&O Canal. Significant public buildings include the Allegany County Courthouse, Allegany County Library, and Emmanuel Episcopal Church, located on the site of Fort Cumberland. It features Gothic Revival architecture
As one of the most affluent counties in the United States, Montgomery County also has the highest percentage of residents over 25 years of age who hold post-graduate degrees. The county has been ranked as one of the wealthiest in the United States. Like other inner-suburban Washington, D.C. counties, Montgomery County contains many major U.S. government offices, scientific research and learning centers, and business campuses, which provide a significant amount of revenue for the county.
The Maryland state legislature named Montgomery County after Richard Montgomery; the county was created from lands that had at one point or another been part of Frederick County. On September 6, 1776, Thomas Sprigg Wootton from Rockville, Maryland, introduced legislation, while serving at the Maryland Constitutional Convention, to create lower Frederick County as Montgomery County. The name, Montgomery County, along with the founding of Washington County, Maryland, after George Washington, was t
Before European colonization, the land now known as Montgomery County was covered in a vast swath of forest crossed by the creeks and small streams that feed the Potomac and Patuxent rivers. A few small villages of the Piscataway, members of the Algonquian people, were scattered
By 1776, there was a growing movement to form a new, strong federal government, with each colony retaining the authority to govern its local affairs. Member of the Maryland Constitutional Convention Thomas S. Wootton thought that dividing large Frederick County into three countie
In 1828, construction on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal commenced and was completed in 1850. Laborers were primarily Irish immigrants.:101 Throughout the 19th century, agriculture dominated the economy in Montgomery County, with slaves playing a significant role, though the vast m
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 507 square miles, of which 491 square miles is land and 16 square miles is water. Montgomery County lies entirely inside the Piedmont plateau. The topography is generally rolling. Elevations range from a low of near sea level along the Potomac River to about 875 feet in the northernmost portion of the county north of Damascus. Relief between valley bottoms and hilltops is several hundred feet.
Montgomery County lies within the northern portions of the humid subtropical climate. It has four distinct seasons, including hot, humid summers and cool winters.
As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 873,058 people living in the county. The racial makeup of the county was 65.0% white, 15.1% black or African American, 11.3% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 5.0% from other races, and 3.5% from two or more races.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 971,777 people, 357,086 households, and 244,898 families living in the county. The population density was 1,978.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 375,905 housing units at an average density of 765.2 per square mile. The raci
The United States Census Bureau estimated the county's population was 1,030,447 as of 2014. If it were a city, it would be the tenth most populous city in the U.S. after San Jose, California and Austin, Texas. The ethnic makeup of the county was estimated to be the following in 2
Ocean City has become a well-known city in Maryland due to the rapid expansion of Ocean City that took place during the post-war boom. In 1952, with the completion of the Chesapeake Bay Bridge , Ocean City became easily accessible to people in the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area .
Rockville, along with neighboring Gaithersburg and Bethesda, is at the core of the Interstate 270 Technology Corridor which is home to numerous software and biotechnology companies as well as several federal government institutions. The city, one of the major retail hubs in Montgomery County, also has several upscale regional shopping centers.
Situated in the Piedmont region and crossed by three creeks, Rockville provided an excellent refuge for semi-nomadic Native Americans as early as 8000 BC. By the first millennium BC, a few of these groups had settled down into year-round agricultural communities that exploited th
The first land patents in the Rockville area were obtained by Arthur Nelson between 1717 and 1735. Within three decades, the first permanent buildings in what would become the center of Rockville were established on this land. Still a part of Prince George's County at this time,
It was first considered to officially name the town Wattsville, after the nearby Watts Branch, but the stream was later considered too small to give its name to the town. On July 16, 1803, when the area was officially entered into the county land records with the name "Rockville,
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.57 square miles, of which 13.51 square miles is land and 0.06 square miles is water.
The median income for a household in the city as of 2015 was $100,239. As of 2007, the median income for a family was $98,257. Males had a median income of $53,764 versus $38,788 for females. In 2015, the per capita income for the city was $49,399. 7.8% of the population and 5.6%
As of the census of 2010, there were 61,209 people, 23,686 households, and 15,524 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,530.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 25,199 housing units at an average density of 1,865.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of
Choice Hotels, Westat, and Bethesda Softworks/ZeniMax Media are headquartered in Rockville.