The Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the Old World archaeological period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic. The term Epipaleolithic is often used synonymously, especially for outside northern Europe, and for the corresponding period in the Levant and Caucasus.
The Mesolithic was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. In the Palaeolithic, people were pure hunter-gatherers. In the Neolithic they were farmers in settlements with domesticated animals and wheat, with over 100 kinds of tools and with pottery.
Early Mesolithic. The earliest known human burial in Ireland is dated to 7530-7320 BCE. It was on a bend of the River Shannon at Hermitage, County Limerick which shows the early inhabitants had begun to move inland along the rivers and were not confined to the sea shores at this early date.
- Stone Age
- Bronze Age
- Iron Age
Several species of humans have intermittently occupied Britain for almost a million years. The Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD is regarded as the start of recorded history although some historical information is available from before then. The earliest evidence of human occupation around 900,000 years ago is at Happisburgh on the Norfolk coast, with stone tools and footprints probably made by Homo antecessor. The oldest human fossils, around 500,000 years old, are of Homo heidelbergensis at B
Palaeolithic Britain is the period of the earliest known occupation of Britain by humans. This huge period saw many changes in the environment, encompassing several glacial and interglacial episodes greatly affecting human settlement in the region. Providing dating for this dista
The Younger Dryas was followed by the Holocene, which began around 9,700 BC, and continues to the present. There was then limited occupation by Ahrensburgian hunter gatherers, but this came to an end when there was a final downturn in temperature which lasted from around 9,400 to
Flint axe used for cutting down trees in the Later Neolithic. Wisbech Museum. From Bedlam Hill. This is a 'Seamer' Yorkshire type. The Neolithic was the period of domestication of plants and animals, but the arrival of a Neolithic package of farming and a sedentary lifestyle is i
Main article: Bronze Age Britain This period can be sub-divided into an earlier phase and a later one. Beaker pottery appears in England around 2475–2315 cal. BC along with flat axes and burial practices of inhumation. With the revised Stonehenge chronology, this is after the Sarsen Circle and trilithons were erected at Stonehenge. Several regions of origin have been postulated for the Beaker culture, notably the Iberian peninsula, the Netherlands and Central Europe. Beaker techniques ...
Main article: British Iron Age In around 750 BC iron working techniques reached Britain from southern Europe. Iron was stronger and more plentiful than bronze, and its introduction marks the beginning of the Iron Age. Iron working revolutionised many aspects of life, most importantly agriculture. Iron tipped ploughs could turn soil more quickly and deeply than older wooden or bronze ones, and iron axes could clear forest land more efficiently for agriculture. There was a landscape of arable, pas
Trialetian is the name for an Upper Paleolithic-Epipaleolithic stone tool industry from the Armenian Highlands. It is tentatively dated to the period between 16,000 / 13,000 BP and 8,000 BP.
The name of the archaeological culture derives from sites in the district of Trialeti in south Georgian Khrami river basin. These sites include Barmaksyzkaya and Edzani-Zurtaketi. In Edzani, an Upper Paleolithic site, a significant percentage of the artifacts are made of obsidian.
The genome of a Mesolithic hunter-gatherer individual found at the layer A2 of the Kotias Klde rock shelter in Georgia, dating from 9,700 BP, has been analysed. This individual forms a genetic cluster with another hunter-gatherer from the Satsurblia Cave, the so-called Caucasian Hunter-Gatherer cluster. KK1 belongs to the Y-chromosome haplogruoup J2a. Although the belonging of the Caspian Mesolithic to the Trialetian has been questioned, it is worth noting that genetic similarities have been fou
Mesolithic: Fertile Crescent Heavy Neolithic Shepherd Neolithic Trihedral Neolithic Pre-Pottery (A, B) Qaraoun culture Tahunian culture Yarmukian culture Halaf culture Halaf-Ubaid Transitional period Ubaid culture Nile valley Faiyum A culture Tasian culture Merimde culture El Omari culture Maadi culture Badarian culture Amratian culture Europe Arzachena culture
Mesolithic Scotland and Its Neighbours, by Alan Saville, 2004, Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, ISBN 0-903903-28-8; Scotland: From Prehistory to the Present, by Fiona Watson, 2003, ISBN 0-7524-2591-9; The Early Prehistory of Scotland, by Tony Pollard and Alex Morrison, 1996, ISBN 0-585-10420-4
Mesolithic, also called Middle Stone Age, ancient cultural stage that existed between the Paleolithic (Old Stone Age), with its chipped stone tools, and the Neolithic (New Stone Age), with its polished stone tools.