New Mexico Territory. The Territory of New Mexico was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed (with varying boundaries) from September 9, 1850, until January 6, 1912, when the remaining extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of New Mexico, making it the longest-lived organized incorporated ...
The Territory of New Mexico was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed (with varying boundaries) from September 9, 1850, until January 6, 1912, when the remaining extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of New Mexico, making it the longest-lived organized incorporated territory of the United States, lasting approximately 62 years.
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Confederate power in the New Mexico Territory was effectively broken after the Battle of Glorieta Pass in 1862. However, the Confederate territorial government continued to operate out of Texas, and Confederate troops marched under the Arizona flag until the end of the war. More than 8,000 men from New Mexico Territory served in the Union Army.
- Prelude to war
- Military actions
The New Mexico Territory, which included the areas which became the modern U.S. states of New Mexico and Arizona as well as the southern part of present-day Nevada, played a small but significant role in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War. Despite its remoteness from the major battlefields of the east and its existence on the still sparsely populated and largely undeveloped American frontier, both Confederate and Union governments claimed ownership over the territory, and se
The New Mexico Territory was organized as a U.S. territory in 1850, and for many years its precise boundaries and internal administration remained undefined. In 1853, the territory was expanded south of the Gila River in the Gadsden Purchase. Proposals for a division of the territory and the organization of a separate Territory of Arizona were advanced as early as 1856. The first proposals for a separate Arizona Territory were not based on the modern east–west division but rather a north ...
Having been only recently annexed from Mexico following the Mexican–American War, the majority of New Mexico's population was apathetic to the ongoing secession crisis in the United States. Aside from their distinct ethnicity and cultural identity, which was primarily Hispanic, the prior experiences of the territory's inhabitants had generated considerable alienation from and even animosity toward Texans. In early 1861, Texans overwhelmingly voted to secede from the Union and the state ...
A significant Confederate offensive to seize the New Mexico Territory in more than just name resulted in the New Mexico Campaign, which was fought from February to April 1862. The Confederate Army of New Mexico, marching west from Texas, briefly occupied the southern New Mexico T
Federal troops left Arizona early in 1861 to reinforce operations in the east, the territory had been left open to Apache attack. Most notably, Mangas Coloradas and Cochise led a series of raids on white civilians that left dozens dead and spread fear and terror across the territ
Peralta, New Mexico, razed in the Battle of Peralta by weapons fire, was rebuilt and is inhabited today. The territorial legislature arranged for a monument commemorating the Union war dead and condemning the Confederacy to be erected in the Santa Fe Plaza.
Pages in category "New Mexico Territory" The following 77 pages are in this category, out of 77 total. This list may not reflect recent changes ().
Territorial evolution of New Mexico. An enlargeable map of the United States after the Constitution of the United States was ratified on March 4, 1789. An enlargeable map of the United States after the secret Third Treaty of San Ildefonso transferred the Spanish colony of la Luisiana to the French Republic on October 1, 1800.
- Native American Settlements
- Colonial Period
- Pueblo Revolt of 1680
- Spanish Relations with The Natives
- U.S. Exploration
- Mexican Territory
- United States Control
Human occupation of New Mexico stretches back at least 11,000 years to the hunter-gatherer Clovis culture. They left evidence of their campsites and stone tools. After the invention of agriculture, the land was inhabited by the Ancestral Puebloans, who built houses out of stone or adobe bricks. They experienced a Golden Age around AD 1000, but climate change led to migration and cultural evolution. From those people arose the historic Pueblo peoples who lived primarily along the few major rivers. The most important rivers are the Rio Grande, the Pecos, the Canadian, the San Juan, and the Gila.
The Pueblo people built a flourishing sedentary culture in the 13th century A.D., constructing small towns in the valley of the Rio Grande and pueblos nearby. By about 700 to 900 AD, the Pueblo began to abandon ancient pit houses dug in cliffs and to construct rectangular rooms arranged in apartment-like structures. By 1050 AD, they had developed planned villages composed of large terraced buildings, each with many rooms. These apartment-house villages were often constructed on defensive sites- on ledges of massive rock, on flat summits, or on steep-sided mesas, locations that would afford the Anasazi protection from their Northern enemies. The largest of these villages, Pueblo Bonito, in the Chaco Canyon of New Mexico, contained around 700 rooms in five stories and may have housed as many as 1000 persons.No larger apartment-house type construction would be seen on the continent until 19th century Chicago and New York. Then, around 1150, Chaco Anasazi society began to unravel. Long...
The Navajo and Apache peoples are members of the large Athabaskanlanguage family, which includes peoples in Alaska and Canada, and along the Pacific Coast. The historic peoples encountered by the Europeans did not make up unified tribes in the modern sense, as they were highly decentralized, operating in bands of a size adapted to their semi-nomadic cultures. From the 16th to the 19th centuries, the European explorers, missionaries, traders and settlers referred to the different groups of Apache and Navajo by various names, often associated with distinctions of language or geography. These Athabaskan peoples identified themselves as Diné, which means "the people". The Navajo and Apache made up the largest non-Pueblo Indian group in the Southwest. These two tribes led nomadic lifestyles and spoke the same language. Some experts estimate that the semi-nomadic Apache were active in New Mexico in the 13th century. Spanish records indicated that they traded with the Pueblo. Various bands...
Spanish exploration and colonization
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado assembled an enormous expedition at Compostela, Mexico in 1540–1542 to explore and find the mythical Seven Golden Cities of Cibola, as described by Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, who had just arrived from his eight-year ordeal of survival. He traveled mostly overland from Florida to Mexico. Cabeza de Vaca and three companions were the only survivors of the Pánfilo de Narváezexpedition of June 17, 1527 to Florida, losing 80 horses and several hundred explorers. These...
Many of the Pueblo people harbored hostility toward the Spanish, due to their oppression of the Indians and prohibition of their practice of traditional religion. The economies of the pueblos were disrupted, as the people were forced to labor on the encomiendas of the colonists. The Spanish introduced new farming implements which the Pueblo adopted and provided some measure of security against Navajo and Apacheraiding parties. The Pueblo lived in relative peace with the Spanish from the founding of the Northern New Mexican colony in 1598. In the 1670s, drought swept the region, causing famine among the Pueblo, and attracting increased attacks from neighboring nomadic tribes trying to gain food supplies. Spanish soldiers were unable to defend the settlements adequately. At the same time, European-introduced diseases caused high mortality among the natives, decimating their communities. Dissatisfied with the protective powers of the Spanish crown and its god of the Catholic Church, th...
From the date of the founding of New Mexico, the Pueblo people and Spanish settlers were plagued by hostile relationships with nomadic and semi-nomadic Navajo, Apache, Ute, and Comanche people.These tribes raided the more sedentary peoples for livestock, food supplies and stores, and captives to ransom or use as slaves. The southwestern natives developed a horse culture, raiding Spanish ranches and missions for their horses, and ultimately breeding and raising their own herds. The native horse culture quickly spread throughout western America. Navajo and Apache raids for horses on Spanish and Pueblo settlements began in the 1650s or earlier. Through the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, the Indians acquired many horses. By the 1750s the Plains Indians horse culture was well established from Texas to Alberta, Canada. The Navajo, in addition to being among the first mounted native Americans in the U.S., were unique in developing a pastoralculture based on sheep stolen from the Spanish. By the ea...
Following Lewis and Clark many men started exploring and trapping in the western parts of the United States. Sent out in 1806, Lt. Zebulon Pike's orders were to find the headwaters of the Arkansas and Red rivers. He was to explore the southwestern part of the Louisiana Purchase. In 1807, when Pike and his men crossed into the San Luis Valley of northern New Mexico they were arrested and taken to Santa Fe, and then sent south to Chihuahua where they appeared before the Commandant General Salcedo. After four months of diplomatic negotiations, Pike and his men were returned to the United States, under protest, across the Red River at Natchitoches.
Revolution and Mexican Independence
The decade that led up to independence was a painful period in the history of Mexico. In 1810 catholic priest Miguel Hidalgo instigated a war for independence in central Mexico, a struggle that quickly took on the character of a class war. The following year, military captain Las Casas instigated a coup within the Imperial regime. Sympathizing with the poor underclass, Las Casas opened up a line of dialogue with the revolutionaries. This caused the Spanish elite to instigate its own counter c...
In 1824 a new constitution was drafted, that established Mexico as a federalist republic. A generally liberal-minded atmosphere that had pervaded Mexico since independence led to generous grants of local autonomy and limited central power. New Mexico in particular was able to take advantage and to carve out significant privileges in this new system. Classified as a territory rather than a state, it had reduced representation in the national government but broad local autonomy. Because of the...
Centralist stage and collapse
The federalist and liberal atmosphere that pervaded Mexican thought since independence fell apart in the mid-1830s. Across the political spectrum there was the perception that the previous system had failed and needed readjustment. This led to the dissolution of the 1824 constitution and the drafting of a new one based on centralist lines. As Mexico drifted farther and farther toward despotism, the national project began to fail and the nation fell into a crisis. Along the frontier, formerly...
In 1846, during the Mexican–American War, American General Stephen W. Kearny marched down the Santa Fe Trail and entered Santa Fe without opposition to establish a joint civil and military government. Kearny's invasion force consisted of his army of 300 cavalry men of the First Dragoons, about 1600 Missouri volunteers in the First and Second Regiments of Fort Leavenworth, Missouri Mounted Cavalry, and the 500 man Mormon Battalion. Kearny appointed Charles Bent, a Santa Fe trail trader living...
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848, Mexico ceded much of its mostly unsettled northern holdings, today known as the American Southwest and California, to the United States of America in exchange for an end to hostilities, and the American evacuation of Mexico City and many other areas under its control. Under this treaty, Mexico recognized Texas as a part of the United States. Mexico also received $15 million cash, plus the assumption of slightly more than $3 million in outstanding...
The Congressional Compromise of 1850 halted a bid for statehood under a proposed antislavery constitution. Texas transferred eastern New Mexico to the federal government, settling a lengthy boundary dispute. Under the compromise, the American government established the New Mexico Territory on September 9, 1850. The territory, which included all of Arizona, New Mexico and parts of Colorado, officially established its capital at Santa Fe in 1851. The U.S. territorial New Mexico census of 1850 f...
On January 6, 1912, after years of debate on whether the population of New Mexico was fully assimilated into American culture, or too immersed in corruption, President William Howard Taft twisted arms in Congress and it approved admission of New Mexico as the 47th state of the Union. The admission of neighboring Arizona on February 14, 1912 completed the contiguous 48 states. Thousands of Mexicans fled north during the extremely bloody civil war that broke out in Mexico in 1911. In 1916 Mexican military leader Pancho Villa led an invasion across the border into Columbus, New Mexico, where they burned some homes and killed several Americans. New Mexico contributed some 17,000 men to the armed services during World War I. Thousands more from the state fought for the Allies during World War II.
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The climate for most of the state is generally semi-arid. In the summer it can be very hot in southern New Mexico. The temperature is sometimes over 100 °F (37.8 °C) with lows over 70 °F (21.1 °C). It occasionally snows in the northern part of the state in the winter. It is drier in the southern portion of the state, and it rarely snows. New Mexico is usually affected by the North American monsoonfrom mid June to late September.
New Mexico is the long-time home of the Pueblo people, a group of Native Americans. The area was named Nuevo México (New Mexico) by the Spanish in the mid-1500s and officially settled in 1598, its capital Santa Fe was selected in 1610. In the late 1600s, the Pueblo people revolted against the Spanish. The Spanish returned twelve years later, and made a better attempt at giving the Pueblos better representation in New Mexico’s society and government. One such Spanish governor of New Mexico, that is most well known for his work with Native Americans, was named Tomás Vélez Cachupín. When Mexicobecame independent in the early 1800s, New Mexico was part of it. Mexico wasn’t successful in representing the New Mexican people, which lead to another revolt called the Chimayo Rebellion. In 1846, the United States and Mexico went to war over a border dispute in Texas (a former state of Mexico that, after being its own country for a time joined the US), and the United States won the war. The pe...
English: The New Mexico Territory (1850−1912) — former U.S. territory in the Southwestern United States, it included the areas which became the modern U.S. states of New Mexico and Arizona as well as the southern part of Nevada.