Christian pilgrimage was first made to sites connected with the birth, life, crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus.Aside from the early example of Origen in the third century, surviving descriptions of Christian pilgrimages to the Holy Land date from the 4th century, when pilgrimage was encouraged by church fathers including Saint Jerome, and established by Saint Helena, the mother of ...
Pilgrimage is a 2017 Irish medieval film directed by Brendan Muldowney. The film stars Tom Holland , Richard Armitage , and Jon Bernthal . It was screened April 23, 2017 at Tribeca Film Festival in its "Viewpoint" section.
A pilgrimage is when people travel to a place of worship that is usually far away. They may have to go to a different city or country. Usually a pilgrimage is done for spiritual or religious reasons. The purpose of Christian pilgrimage was summarized by Pope Benedict XVI this way: To go on pilgrimage is not simply to visit a place to admire its ...
- Traditions of Christian pilgrimage
- Motivations of pilgrims
- Pilgrimage destinations
Christianity has a strong tradition of pilgrimages, both to sites relevant to the New Testament narrative and to sites associated with later saints or miracles.
Christian pilgrimage was first made to sites connected with the birth, life, crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus. Aside from the early example of Origen in the third century, surviving descriptions of Christian pilgrimages to the Holy Land date from the 4th century, when pilgrimage was encouraged by church fathers including Saint Jerome, and established by Saint Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great.
The motivations which draw today's visitors to Christian sacred sites can be mixed: faith-based, spiritual in a general way, with cultural interests, etc. This diversity has become an important factor in the management and pastoral care of Christian pilgrimage, as recent research on international sanctuaries and much-visited churches has shown.
Rome has been a major Christian pilgrimage site since the Middle Ages. Pilgrimages to Rome can involve visits to a large number of sites, both within the Vatican City and in Italian territory. A popular stopping point is the Pilate's stairs: these are, according to the Christian
After the murder of the Archbishop Thomas Becket at the cathedral in 1170, Canterbury became one of the most notable towns in Europe, as pilgrims from all parts of Christendom came to visit his shrine. This pilgrimage provided the framework for Geoffrey Chaucer's 14th-century col
The first pilgrimages were made to sites connected with Jesus. Aside from the early example of Origen who, "in search of the traces of Jesus, the disciples and the prophets", already found local folk prompt to show him the actual location of the Gadarene swine in the mid-3rd cent
Pilgrimage (Om album) Pilgrimage (Wishbone Ash album) Pilgrimage, a solo cantata composed by Carlisle Floyd. “Pilgrimage”, a song by Conjure One from Extraordinary Ways. “Pilgrimage”, a song by Nine Inch Nails from The Fragile. “Pilgrimage”, a song by R.E.M. from Murmur. “Pilgrimage”, a song by Suzanne Vega from Days of Open Hand.
- Imitative versions
The Shikoku Pilgrimage or Shikoku Junrei is a multi-site pilgrimage of 88 temples associated with the Buddhist monk Kūkai on the island of Shikoku, Japan. A popular and distinctive feature of the island's cultural landscape, and with a long history, large numbers of pilgrims, known as henro, still undertake the journey for a variety of ascetic, pious, and tourism-related purposes. The pilgrimage is traditionally completed on foot, but modern pilgrims use cars, taxis, buses, bicycles, or...
Pilgrimages have played an important part in Japanese religious practice since at least the Heian period. Typically centred upon holy mountains, particular divinities, or charismatic individuals, they are usually to Buddhist sites although those to the shrines of Kumano and Ise a
Kūkai, born at Zentsū-ji in 774, studied in China, and upon his return was influential in the promotion of esoteric Buddhism. He established the Shingon retreat of Kōya-san, was an active writer, undertook a programme of public works, and during visits to the island of ...
The legends and cult of Kōbō Daishi, such as the episode of Emon Saburō, were maintained and developed by the monks of Kōya-san who travelled to expound Shingon and were active, along with other hijiri, in Shikoku. In the Edo period, the policy of tochi kinbaku ...
Shikoku literally means "four provinces", those of Awa, Tosa, Iyo, and Sanuki, reorganized during the Meiji period into the prefectures of Tokushima, Kōchi, Ehime, and Kagawa. The pilgrim's journey through these four provinces is likened to a symbolic path to enlightenment, with
The pilgrim's traditional costume comprises a white shirt, conical Asian hat, and staff. This may be supplemented by a ceremonial stole. The henro also carries a bag containing name slips, prayer beads, a booklet to collect stamps/seals, incense sticks, and coins used as offering
Upon arrival at each temple the henro washes before proceeding to the Hondō. After offering coins, incense, and the osame-fuda, the Heart Sutra is chanted along with repetition of the Mantra of the main image and the Mantra of Light. After kigan and ekō prayers, the henro ...
Attesting to the popularity of the Shikoku pilgrimage, from the eighteenth century a number of smaller imitative versions have been established. These include a 150 kilometres circuit on Shōdo Island northeast of Takamatsu; a 3 kilometres course on the grounds of Ninna-ji in Kyoto; a route on the Chita Peninsula near Nagoya; and circuits in Edo and Chiba Prefecture. Outside Japan, another version is on the Hawai'ian island of Kaua'i.
The rites of pilgrimage are performed over five to six days, extending from the 8th to the 12th or 13th of Dhu al-Hijjah, the last month of the Islamic calendar. Because the Islamic calendar is lunar and the Islamic year is about eleven days shorter than the Gregorian year, the Gregorian date of Hajj changes from year to year.
Pilgrimage church. A pilgrimage church ( German: Wallfahrtskirche) is a church to which pilgrimages are regularly made, or a church along a pilgrimage route, like the Way of St. James, that is visited by pilgrims. Pilgrimage churches are often located by the graves of saints, or hold portraits to which miraculous properties are ascribed or ...
- Plot Summary
- Places in The Pilgrim's Progress
- Geographical and Topographical Features Behind The Fictional Places
- Cultural Influence
- Dramatizations, Music, and Film
- External Links
The entire book is presented as a dream sequence narrated by an omniscient narrator. The allegory's protagonist, Christian, is an everyman character, and the plot centres on his journey from his hometown, the "City of Destruction" ("this world"), to the "Celestial City" ("that which is to come": Heaven) atop Mount Zion. Christian is weighed down by a great burden—the knowledge of his sin—which he believed came from his reading "the book in his hand" (the Bible). This burden, which would cause...
The Second Part of The Pilgrim's Progress presents the pilgrimage of Christian's wife, Christiana, and their sons, and the maiden, Mercy. They visit the same stopping places that Christian visited, with the addition of Gaius' Inn between the Valley of the Shadow of Death and Vanity Fair, but they take a longer time in order to accommodate marriage and childbirth for the four sons and their wives. The heroof the story is Greatheart, a servant of the Interpreter, who is the pilgrims' guide to t...
1. Christian, who was born with the name Graceless, the protagonist in the First Part, whose journey to the Celestial City is the plotof the story. 2. Evangelist, the religious man who puts Christian on the path to the Celestial City. He also shows Christian a book, which readers assume to be the Bible. 3. Obstinate,one of the two residents of the City of Destruction, who run after Christian when he first sets out, in order to bring him back. Like his name, he is stubborn and is disgusted wit...
1. Mr. Sagacity, a guest narrator who meets Bunyan himself in his new dream and recounts the events of the Second Part up to the arrival at the Wicket Gate. 2. Christiana, wife of Christian, who leads her four sons and neighbor Mercy on pilgrimage. 3. Matthew, Christian and Christiana's eldest son, who marries Mercy. 4. Samuel, the second son, who marries Grace, Mr. Mnason's daughter. 5. Joseph, the third son, who marries Martha, Mr. Mnason's daughter. 6. James, fourth and youngest son, who m...City of Destruction, Christian's home, representative of the world (cf. Isaiah 19:18)Mount Sinai, a frightening mountain near the Village of Morality that threatens all who would go there.Wicket Gate, the entry point of the straight and narrow way to the Celestial City. Pilgrims are required to enter by way of the Wicket Gate. Beelzebub's castle was built not very far from the Gate.
Scholars have pointed out that Bunyan may have been influenced in the creation of places in The Pilgrim's Progress by his own surrounding environment. Albert Foster describes the natural features of Bedfordshire that apparently turn up in The Pilgrim's Progress. Vera Brittain in her thoroughly researched biography of Bunyan, identifies seven locations that appear in the allegory. Other connections are suggested in books not directly associated with either John Bunyan or The Pilgrim's Progress. At least twenty-one natural or man-made geographical or topographical features from The Pilgrim's Progress have been identified—places and structures John Bunyan regularly would have seen as a child and, later, in his travels on foot or horseback. The entire journey from The City of Destruction to the Celestial City may have been based on Bunyan's own usual journey from Bedford, on the main road that runs less than a mile behind his cottage in Elstow, through Ampthill, Dunstab...
Context in Christendom
The Pilgrim's Progress was much more popular than its predecessors. Bunyan's plain style breathes life into the abstractions of the anthropomorphized temptations and abstractions that Christian encounters and with whom he converses on his course to Heaven. Samuel Johnson said that "this is the great merit of the book, that the most cultivated man cannot find anything to praise more highly, and the child knows nothing more amusing." Three years after its publication (1681), it was reprinted in...
Not long after its initial publication, The Pilgrim's Progress was being translated into multiple languages starting with Dutch in 1681, German in 1703 and Swedish in 1727, as well as over eighty African languages. Beginning in the 1850s, illustrated versions of The Pilgrim's Progress in Chinese were printed in Hong Kong, Shanghai and Fuzhou and widely distributed by Protestant missionaries. Hong Xiuquan, the leader of the Christianity-inspired Taiping Rebellion, declared that the book was hi...
The "Third Part"
The Third Part of the Pilgrim's Progress was written by an anonymous author; beginning in 1693, it was published with Bunyan's authentic two parts. It continued to be republished with Bunyan's work until 1852.This third part presented the pilgrimage of Tender-Conscience and his companions.In 1850, a moving panorama of Pilgrim's Progress, known as the Bunyan Tableuax or the Grand Moving Panorama of Pilgrim's Progress was painted by Joseph Kyle and Edward Harrison May and displayed in...The novel was made into a film, Pilgrim's Progress, in 1912.In 1950 an hour-long animated version was made by Baptista Films. This version was edited down to 35 minutes and re-released with new music in 1978. As of 2007 the original version is difficult to...In 1951 the first performance of the opera The Pilgrim's Progress was composed by Ralph Vaughan Williams, at the Royal Opera of Covent GardenBunyan, John The Pilgrim's Progress. Edited by Roger Sharrock and J. B. Wharey. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975) ISBN 0198118023. The standard critical edition, originally published in 1928...Bunyan, John The Pilgrim's Progress. Edited with an introduction and notes by Roger Sharrrock. (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1987) ISBN 0140430040. The text is based on the 1975 Clarendon edition (see a...Bunyan, John The Pilgrim's Progress. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003) ISBN 978-0-19-280361-0.The Pilgrim's Progress at Standard EbooksThe Pilgrim's Progress public domain audiobook at LibriVoxThe Pilgrim's Progress: parts I & II. (Ebook, PDF layout and fonts inspired by 18th century publications
- Religious allegory
- John Bunyan
Musa I (c. 1280 – c. 1337 ), or Mansa Musa, was the tenth Mansa (a military title meaning "conqueror" or "emperor") of the Mali Empire, an Islamic West African state. Musa depicted holding an Imperial Golden Globe in the 1375 Catalan Atlas. At the time of Musa's ascension to the throne, Mali in large part consisted of the territory of the ...