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  1. Second language. A person's second language, or L2, is a language that is not the native language ( first language or L1) of the speaker, but is learned later (usually as a foreign language, but it can be another language used in the speaker's home country). A speaker's dominant language, which is the language a speaker uses most or is most comfortable with, is not necessarily the speaker's first language.

  2. Second language refers to any language learned in addition to a person's first language; although the concept is named second-language acquisition, it can also incorporate the learning of third, fourth, or subsequent languages.

    • Terminology and Types
    • Difficulties For Learners
    • Social Challenges and Benefits
    • Peer Tutoring For ESL Students
    • Exams For Learners
    • Qualifications For Teachers
    • Professional Associations and Unions
    • Acronyms and Abbreviations
    • External Links

    The many acronyms and abbreviations used in the field of English teaching and learning may be confusing and the following technical definitions may have their currency contested upon various grounds. The precise usage, including the different use of the terms ESL and ESOL in different countries, is described below. These terms are most commonly used in relation to teaching and learning English as a second language, but they may also be used in relation to demographic information.[citation needed] English language teaching (ELT) is a widely used teacher-centered term, as in the English language teaching divisions of large publishing houses, ELT training, etc. Teaching English as a second language (TESL), teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL), and teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) are also used.[citation needed] Other terms used in this field include English as an international language (EIL), English as a lingua franca (ELF), English for special purposes...

    Language teaching practice often assumes that most of the difficulties that learners face in the study of English are a consequence of the degree to which their native language differs from English (a contrastive analysis approach). A native speaker of Chinese, for example, may face many more difficulties than a native speaker of German, because German is more closely related to English than Chinese. This may be true for anyone of any mother tongue (also called the first language, normally abbreviated L1) setting out to learn any other language (called a target language, second language or L2). See also second language acquisition(SLA) for mixed evidence from linguistic research. Language learners often produce errors of syntax, vocabulary, and pronunciation thought to result from the influence of their L1, such as mapping its grammatical patterns inappropriately onto the L2, pronouncing certain sounds incorrectly or with difficulty, and confusing items of vocabulary known as false...

    Class placement

    ESL students often suffer from the effects of tracking and ability grouping. Students are often placed into low ability groups based on scores on standardized tests in English and math. There is also low mobility among these students from low to high performing groups, which can prevent them from achieving the same academic progress as native speakers. Similar tests are also used to place ESL students in college-level courses. Students have voiced frustration that only non-native students hav...

    Dropout rates

    Dropout rates for ESL students in multiple countries are much higher than dropout rates for native speakers. The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) in the United States reported that the percentage of dropouts in the non-native born Hispanic youth population between the ages of 16 and 24 years old is 43.4%. A study in Canada found that the high school dropout rate for all ESL students was 74%.High dropout rates are thought to be due to difficulties ESL students have in keeping up...

    Access to higher education

    ESL students face several barriers to higher education. Most colleges and universities require four years of English in high school. In addition, most colleges and universities only accept one year of ESL English. It is difficult for ESL students that arrive in the United States relatively late to finish this requirement because they must spend a longer time in ESL English classes in high school, or they might not arrive early enough to complete four years of English in high school. This resu...

    Peer tutoring refers to an instructional method that pairs up low-achieving English readers, with ESL students that know minimal English and who are also approximately the same age and same grade level. The goal of this dynamic is to help both the tutor, in this case, the English speaker, and the tutee, the ESL student. Monolingualtutors are given the class material in order to provide tutoring to their assigned ESL tutee. Once the tutor has had the chance to help the student, classmates get to switch roles in order to give both peers an opportunity to learn from each other. In a study, which conducted a similar research, their results indicated that low-achieving readers that were chosen as tutors, made a lot of progress by using this procedure. In addition, ESL students were also able to improve their grades due to the fact that they increased their approach in reading acquisition skills.

    Learners of English are often eager to get accreditation and a number of exams are known internationally: 1. IELTS (International English Language Testing System) is the world's most popular English test for higher education and immigration. It is managed by the British Council, Cambridge Assessment English and IDP Education. It is offered in Academic, General and Life Skills versions. IELTS Academic is the normal test of English proficiency for entry into universities in the UK, Australia, Canada, and other British Englishcountries. IELTS General is required for immigration into Australia and New Zealand. Both versions of IELTS are accepted for all classes of UK visa and immigration applications. IELTS Life Skills, was introduced in 2015 specifically to meet the requirements for some classes of UK visa application. 2. CaMLA, a collaboration between the University of Michigan and Cambridge English Language Assessment offer a suite of American English tests, including the MET (Michig...

    Qualifications vary from one region or jurisdiction to the next. There are also different qualifications for those who manage or direct TESOL programs

    TESOL International Association (TESOL) is a professional organizationbased in the United States. In addition, TESOL International Association has more than 100 statewide and regional affiliates in...
    The International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (IATEFL) is a professional organization based in the United Kingdom.
    Professional organizations for teachers of English exist at national levels. Many contain phrases in their title such as the Japan Association for Language Teaching (JALT), TESOL Greece in Greece,...
    The National Association for Teaching English and other Community Languages to Adults (NATECLA) which focuses on teaching ESOL in the United Kingdom.

    Note that some of the terms below may be restricted to one or more countries, or may be used with different meanings in different countries, particularly the US and UK. See further discussion is Terminology, and typesabove.

    English as a Second Language at Curlie
    Limited English Proficiency - Interagency site of the Federal Government of the United States
  3. Second language. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. A second language is a language that a person learns in addition to their first language. A second language may be learned in a formal or informal way, such as at school or in a family. A person may speak two or more second languages.

    • Overview
    • Symposium on Second Language Writing
    • At TESOL, Inc.
    • Second Language Writing Transfer (L2) Theory
    • At CCCC
    • Perspectives and theories

    Second language writing is the study of writing performed by non-native speakers/writers of a language as a second or foreign language. In addition to disseminating research through the Journal of Second Language Writing, scholars in the field regularly participate in three academic conferences, the Symposium on Second Language Writing, the TESOL convention, and the Conference on College Composition and Communication.

    The Symposium on Second Language Writing, which began in 1998 at Purdue University, is an international conference on second language writing. It was a biennial event through 2006, and annual after that. It has been hosted at Purdue University six times, but the 2007 symposium was held in Japan; the 2009 at Arizona State University, the 2010 in Murcia, Spain; the 2011 in Taipei, Taiwan; and the 2013 will be held at Shandong University, Jinan, China.

    In June 2005, the TESOL Board added of a new interest section on writing. The Second Language Writing IS; it held its first meeting in Tampa in March 2006, covering topics ranging from "Broadening Perspectives in Second Language Writing" and "Alternative Placement Methods for Second Language Writers" to "Issues in Technologies for L2 Composition Classrooms" and "Crossing Bridges with Second Language Writing Partnerships." As these suggest, the section provides a forum for researchers and educato

    Some notable scholars in the field of Second Language writing transfer include Mark Andrew James and GitaDasBender. First, Depalma and Ringer define how L2 writing transfer was only defined as individuals reusing previous writing knowledge from one context to another in a second language context. In particular, there are two examples outlined by James of when L2 writing transfer may occur. First, it possibly occurs when students are taught a certain organizational structure to follow in one ESL

    Second language writing scholars also participate in a Special Interest Group on the field at CCCC. In addition, the organization has a Committee on Second Language Writing to bridge work between CCCC and TESOL to involve more scholars in the field's discussions. Much recent attention focuses on the potential of computer-mediated communication to foster desire and opportunity to write. In addition, attention has been focused on the practical application of teaching Second Language writing not on

    Second language writing development has been investigated from many different perspectives. Manchón's edited book on L2 Writing Development: Multiple Perspectives provides an insight in which perspective second language writing development can be investigated. Her edited books includes studies on L2 writing development from dynamic systems theory, goal theory, genre-based systemic functional linguistics, and rhetorical genre theory. Second language writing development has been most ...

    • Major Re-Write Needed
    • Re-Work
    • Suggested Renaming of Article
    • Second Language Compared with Foreign Language
    • Second Language/L2
    • Weird - Egypt
    • History section?
    • Data Table Should Be Removed
    • General Tidying Up
    • Data Tables

    I just came across this article, and it just doesn't make sense. It starts by defining second language as a language learned where it is spoken, as compared to a foreign language, which is learned where that language is not spoken. These are the correct definitions, and universally used in other languages. However, all the second language examples in the article are foreign language examples. English is the world's largest foreign language, not second language, and Latin can by definition never be anything but a foreign language. I've just added the article to my things to revise, and hope to be able to do so in a not too distant future. Thomas Blomberg01:34, 13 February 2006 (UTC) 1. Agree. It's been written by some very very random "second language acquisition" (ugh what a term) enthusiasts. The whole article is indeed bonkers. I tried to help by lifting the "foreign language" distinction and re-arranging. --Sigmundur (talk) 13:11, 9 April 2014 (UTC) 1.1. @Sigmundur: that comment...

    I too just recently came across this article. There wasn't much to it when I arrived at it. I was surprised by that. Then I realised that people have been cutting it up and not leaving much behind. Hmm... Well, obviously it needs work. I've added some bits on age, language loss, and in point form, some of the characteristics of learning a 2nd language. There also should be theories of 2nd language learning... and much much more. Anyway, here's a start. 1. I've added the table with the similarities and differences between the L1 and the L2. And I've done some description of it. Also, I've listed in bullet form theories of learning. And some references and further reading.DDD DDD01:52, 23 May 2006 (UTC)

    This article is not about "second language", but about second acquired language. The fact is that the term "second language" has many meanings and the term is not standardised. I have edited the "first language" article to reflect the different views, but the entire "second language" article is devoted to just one viewpoint on first and second languages (namely that a second language is one that was acquired second). One can either rewrite the article trying to NPOV it, but that would change the entire nature of the article, or one could rename it "second acquired language" (or similar) and make minor changes to it to remove the implied fact that the second language is the one acquired second. Your comments? -- leuce10:41, 31 October 2006 (UTC) 1. It's an interesting point. I think, on balance, that the title should stay, because 1.1. Names of Wikipedia articles should be optimized for readers over editors; and for a general audience over specialists. (see Wikipedia:Naming conventio...

    I believe the section should be rewritten because the definitions don't seem to be exactly right. Second language: Not one's native tongue, but it is used widely within the country of the person's residence in social discourse, and for him or her will be used on personal conversations with close friends as well as more formal business and government liaisons. For example, French in Canada, English in Singapore or India, French for Flemish in Belgium (if they are willing to use it and bar the issue of Belgium dissolutionism). Foreign language: Not one's native tongue, and it is not used in social discourse, and for him or her will be confined to dealing with people who speak that language as native speakers or sometimes for certain government and business matters. For example, English in Hong Kong for most local Hongkongers (despite English being an official language), French in South Korea, Arabic in Germany. The reason I propose this redefinition is because English in Singapore is...

    In my opinion, the title of this page should be changed in "L2". Now in linguistic with "L2" we intend any languages learnt after the mother language or L1, i.e. both "second language" and "foreign language". --Daviboz (talk) 01:08, 19 December 2008 (UTC) 1. The problem is that virtually no-one will know what L2 means, and I'm sure "L2" is used for another thousand things in this world too. --Hooiwind (talk) 16:12, 28 April 2011 (UTC)

    I quote: "Although Egypt, like most of the other Arab Persian Gulf states, was once a British colony, English, like in China, is a foreign language in Egypt". I guess I'm quite slow and just can't comprehend the finesse between a foreign and second language, but I have lived in Cairo for 6 months using only English. And now, question: does the state of Egypt say "English is NOT a second language for our people" or am I missing something? Alzwded (talk) 18:55, 26 May 2009 (UTC)

    Is there any data on what languages have been learned in the past?-- (talk) 03:58, 12 March 2013 (UTC)

    Weber's data from 1986 is obviously out of date and Ethnologue's methodology for counting speakers is not clear. It's best to just remove the section. (talk) 22:22, 13 August 2013 (UTC) And if the three tables are compared arithmetically, the numbers disagree. At least for Mandarin: 1116-918/=178.伟思礼 (talk) 20:12, 12 September 2020 (UTC)

    There are some good starting points in this article, but as others have suggested, it still requires some work. I still find the current definitions of second language and foreign language to be somewhat unclear and think this could be remedied by providing clear, contrasting definitions with explicit examples. Furthermore, the article lacks citations, which I find to be extremely problematic. The citations should be present and cited using a superscript rather than embedded in the text, like in an essay. I don’t think an entire rewrite is necessary, but some tidying up and proper citations. Mjung11 (talk) 16:10, 17 September 2014 (UTC) 1. You should be aware that Wikipedia only requires inline citations of controversial information, and when required any style of citation is acceptable. I am removing the "needs citation" tag because the citations are acceptable. It would be best if all citations were in the same style, but that isn't necessarily superscript references. See Wikipedi...

    Hey I just edited the data table and it was hard to find an accurate data for L2 speakers of each language. But I found the data from and they were updated June 2013 (kind of out of date but better than 1986). And I found that there must be something wrong with the number of total speakers (200 million) and native speakers (202 million) of Portuguese. If anyone find a better statistic to replace it, that would be perfect! Thanks. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Autumnzhouyx (talk • contribs) 01:07, 5 November 2018 (UTC) Discussion should be added to, not replaced! But I am not sure it’s wise for me to revert and paste in the unsigned addition.伟思礼 (talk) 20:16, 12 September 2020 (UTC) And (after that edit) if the three tables are compared arithmetically, the numbers still disagree. At least for Mandarin: 1116-918/=178.伟思礼 (talk) 20:19, 12 September 2020 (UTC)

  4. Second-language attrition is the decline of second-language skills, which occurs whenever the learner uses the second language to an insufficient degree or due to environmental changes the language use is limited and another language is becoming the dominant one.

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