The meaning of spirituality has developed and expanded over time, and various connotations can be found alongside each other. Traditionally, spirituality referred to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man", oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.
Spiritual evolution, the philosophical, theological, esoteric or spiritual idea that nature and human beings evolve Spiritual experience , a subjective experience in religion Spiritual formation , the process and practices by which a person may progress in one's spiritual or religious life or to a movement in Protestantism
- Terminology and origin
- Religious significance
- Alternative interpretations
Spirituals is a genre of songs originating in the United States and created by African Americans. Spirituals were originally an oral tradition that imparted Christian values while also describing the hardships of slavery. Although spirituals were originally unaccompanied monophonic songs, they developed into harmonized choral arrangements.
The term "spiritual" is derived from "spiritual song", from the King James Bible's translation of Ephesians 5:19, which says, "Speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord." Slave Songs of the United States, the first major collection of Negro spirituals, was published in 1867. The genre was also called "Sorrow Songs", as in W.E.B. Du Bois' The Souls of Black Folk. Musicologist George Pullen Jackson extended the term "spiritu
Enslaved people were forbidden to speak their native languages, and were generally converted to Christianity. With narrow vocabularies, enslaved people would use the words they did know to translate biblical information and facts from their other sources into song. While some sla
The historian Sylviane Diouf and ethnomusicologist Gerhard Kubik identify Islamic music as an influence. Diouf notes a striking resemblance between the Islamic call to prayer and 19th-century field holler music, noting that both have similar lyrics praising God, melody, note chan
Christian hymns and songs were very influential on the writing of African-American spirituals, especially those from the "Great Awakening" of the 1730s. As Africans were exposed to stories from the Bible, they began to see parallels to their own experiences. The story of the exil
Some sources claim that songs such as "Wade in the Water" contained explicit instructions to fugitive slaves on how to avoid capture, and on which routes to take to successfully make their way to freedom. "Wade in the Water" allegedly recommends leaving dry land and taking to the water as a strategy to throw pursuing bloodhounds off one's trail. "The Gospel Train", "Song of the Free", and "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot" are likewise supposed to contain veiled references to the Underground Railroad, a
"The African American spiritual constitutes one of the largest and most significant forms of American folksong." James Weldon Johnson and J. Rosamond Johnson presented spirituals as the only type of folk music that America has. Spirituals were sung as lullabies and play songs. Some spirituals were adapted as work songs. Antonin Dvorak chose spiritual music to represent America in his Symphony From the New World. Spirituals remain a mainstay particularly in small black churches, often Baptist or
In the 1850s, Reverend Alexander Reid, superintendent of the Spencer Academy in the old Choctaw Nation, hired some enslaved Africans from the Choctaws for some work around the school. He heard two of them, "Uncle Wallace" and "Aunt Minerva" Willis, singing religious songs that th
A second important early collection of lyrics is Slave Songs of the United States by William Francis Allen, Charles Pickard Ware, and Lucy McKim Garrison. A group of lyrics to African American spirituals was published by Colonel Thomas Wentworth Higginson, who commanded a regimen
Spirituality is a name given to matters of the spirit. These can be any kind of meaningful personal activity or peaceful experience. There is not one agreed upon way to explain what happens. It is a concept so people can see and understand it in different ways.
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Oliver Lodge also promoted a version of spiritual evolution in his books Man and the Universe (1908), Making of Man (1924) and Evolution and Creation (1926). The spiritualist element in the synthesis was most prominent in Lodge's 1916 book Raymond, or Life and Death which revived a large interest for the public in the paranormal.
In Hinduism, the practice of cultivating spirituality is known as sadhana. Japa, the silent or audible repetition of a mantra, is a common Hindu spiritual practice.. Tantric practices are shared in common between Hinduism and certain Buddhist (especially Tibetan Buddhist) schools, and involve the deliberate use of the mundane (worldly, physical or material) to access the supramundane ...
- Origins and demography
- Characteristics of SBNR
"Spiritual but not religious", also known as "Spiritual but not affiliated", is a popular phrase and initialism used to self-identify a life stance of spirituality that does not regard organized religion as the sole or most valuable means of furthering spiritual growth. Historically, the words religious and spiritual have been used synonymously to describe all the various aspects of the concept of religion, but in contemporary usage spirituality has often become associated with the interior life
Historically, the words religious and spiritual have been used synonymously to describe all the various aspects of the concept of religion. However, religion is a highly contested term with scholars such as Russell McCutcheon arguing that the term "religion" is used as a way to name a "seemingly distinct domain of diverse items of human activity and production". The field of religious studies cannot even agree on one definition for religion and since spirituality overlaps with it in many ways it
According to Abby Day, some of those who are critical of religion see it as rigid and pushy, leading them to use terms such as atheist, agnostic to describe themselves. For many people, SBNR is not just about rejecting religion outright, but not wanting to be restricted by it. Ac
Linda A. Mercadante categorizes SBNRs into five distinct categories
SBNR is related to feminist spiritual and religious thought and ecological spiritualities, and also to Neo-Paganism, Wicca, Shamanic, Druidic, Gaian and ceremonial magic practices. Some New Age spiritual practices include astrology, Ouija boards, Tarot cards, the I Ching, and sci
Some representatives of organized religion have criticized the practice of spirituality without religiosity. Lillian Daniel, a liberal Protestant minister, has characterized the SBNR worldview as a product of secular American consumer culture, far removed from community and "right smack in the bland majority of people who find ancient religions dull but find themselves uniquely fascinating". James Martin, a Jesuit priest, has called the SBNR lifestyle "plain old laziness", stating that "spiritua
Blaise Pascal's vision of 23 November 1654, which reinvigorated his spiritual commitment Emanuel Swedenborg 's visions, which formed the basis of a newly revealed doctrine (beginning in 1740s)  Joseph Smith 's First Vision (1820), including Throne-Theophany of Lehi in the First Book of Nephi in 1 Nephi 1:8–11 (6th century BC) 
A spirit guide, in western spiritualism, is an entity that remains as a disincarnate spirit to act as a guide or protector to a living incarnated human being.