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  1. State atheism - Wikipedia › wiki › State_atheism

    State atheism is the incorporation of positive atheism or non-theism into political regimes. It may also refer to large-scale secularization attempts by governments. It is a form of religion-state relationship that is usually ideologically linked to irreligion and the promotion of irreligion to some extent.

  2. Atheism - Wikipedia › wiki › Atheism

    Atheism, in the broadest sense, is an absence of belief in the existence of deities. Less broadly, atheism is a rejection of the belief that any deities exist. In an even narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that there are no deities.

  3. Atheism in the United States - Wikipedia › wiki › Atheism_in_the_United_States

    In 2009, Pew stated that only 5% of the US population did not have a belief in a god and out of that small group only 24% self-identified as "atheist", while 15% self-identified as "agnostic" and 35% self-identified as "nothing in particular". According to the 2008 ARIS, only 2% the US population was atheist, while 10% were agnostics.

  4. History of atheism - Wikipedia › wiki › History_of_atheism
    • Etymology
    • Indian Philosophy
    • Classical Greece and Rome
    • The Middle Ages
    • Renaissance and Reformation
    • The Age of Enlightenment
    • Modern History
    • References
    • External Links

    Atheism is derived from the Ancient Greek ἄθεος atheosmeaning "without gods; godless; secular; refuting or repudiating the existence of gods, especially officially sanctioned gods".

    In the East, a contemplative life not centered on the idea of deities began in the sixth century BCE with the rise of Jainism, Buddhism, and various sects of Hinduism in India, and of Taoism in China. These religions offered a philosophic and salvific path not involving deity worship. Deities are not seen as necessary to the salvific goal of the early Buddhist tradition, their reality is explicitly questioned and often rejected. There is a fundamental incompatibility between the notion of gods and basic Buddhist principles, at least in some interpretations.Some Buddhist philosophers assert that belief in an eternal creator god is a distraction from the central task of the religious life. Within the astika ("orthodox") schools of Hindu philosophy, the Samkhya and the early Mimamsaschool did not accept a creator-deity in their respective systems. The principal text of the Samkhya school, the Samkhya Karika, was written by Ishvara Krishna in the fourth century CE, by which time it was...

    In Western Classical Antiquity, theism was the fundamental belief that supported the legitimacy of the state (the polis, later the Roman Empire). Historically, any person who did not believe in any deity supported by the state was fair game to accusations of atheism, a capital crime. Charges of atheism (meaning any subversion of religion) were often used similarly to charges of heresy and impiety as a political tool to eliminate enemies. Early Christians were widely reviled as atheists because they did not believe in the existence of the Roman gods. During the Roman Empire, Christians were executed for their rejection of the pagan deities in general and the Imperial cult of ancient Rome in particular. When Christianity became the Roman state religion under Theodosius I in 381, heresybecame a punishable offense.

    Islamic world

    In medieval Islam, Muslim scholars recognized the idea of atheism and frequently attacked unbelievers, although they were unable to name any atheists. When individuals were accused of atheism, they were usually viewed as heretics rather than proponents of atheism. However, outspoken rationalists and atheists existed, one notable figure being the ninth-century scholar Ibn al-Rawandi, who criticized the notion of religious prophecy, including that of Muhammad, and maintained that religious dogm...


    The titular character of the Icelandic saga Hrafnkell, written in the late thirteenth century, says, "I think it is folly to have faith in gods". After his temple to Freyr is burnt and he is enslaved, he vows never to perform another sacrifice, a position described in the sagas as goðlauss, "godless". Jacob Grimm in his Teutonic Mythologyobserves, citing several other examples, including two kings. Subsequent to Grimm's investigation, scholars including J. R. R. Tolkien[citation needed] and E...

    During the time of the Renaissance and the Reformation, criticism of the religious establishment became more frequent in predominantly Christian countries, but did not amount to atheism, per se. The term athéisme was coined in France in the sixteenth century. The word "atheist" appears in English books at least as early as 1566.The concept of atheism re-emerged initially as a reaction to the intellectual and religious turmoil of the Age of Enlightenment and the Reformation, as a charge used by those who saw the denial of god and godlessness in the controversial positions being put forward by others. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the word 'atheist' was used exclusively as an insult; nobody wanted to be regarded as an atheist. Although one overtly atheistic compendium known as the Theophrastus redivivus was published by an anonymous author in the seventeenth century, atheism was an epithet implying a lack of moral restraint. According to Geoffrey Blainey, the Reforma...

    While not gaining converts from large portions of the population, versions of deism became influential in certain intellectual circles. Jean Jacques Rousseau challenged the Christian notion that human beings had been tainted by sin since the Garden of Eden, and instead proposed that humans were originally good, only later to be corrupted by civilization. The influential figure of Voltaire spread deistic notions of to a wide audience. "After the French Revolution and its outbursts of atheism, Voltaire was widely condemned as one of the causes", wrote Blainey, "Nonetheless, his writings did concede that fear of God was an essential policeman in a disorderly world: 'If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him', wrote Voltaire". Voltaire wrote this in response to Treatise of the Three Impostors, a document (most likely) authored by John Tolandthat denied all three Abrahamic religions. Arguably the first book in modern times solely dedicated to promoting atheism was written...

    Nineteenth century

    The French Revolution of 1789 catapulted atheistic thought into political notability in some Western countries, and opened the way for the nineteenth century movements of Rationalism, Freethought, and Liberalism. Born in 1792, Romantic poet Percy Bysshe Shelley, a child of the Age of Enlightenment, was expelled from England's Oxford University in 1811 for submitting to the Dean an anonymous pamphlet that he wrote entitled, The Necessity of Atheism. This pamphlet is considered by scholars as t...

    Twenty-first century

    The early twenty-first century has continued to see secularism, humanism and atheism promoted in the Western world, with the general consensus being that the number of people not affiliated with any particular religion has increased. This has been assisted by non-profit organizations such as the Freedom From Religion Foundation in the United States (co-founded by Anne Nicol Gaylor and her daughter, Annie Laurie Gaylor, in 1976 and incorporated nationally in 1978, it promotes the separation of...

    Alexander, Nathan G. (2019). Race in a Godless World: Atheism, Race, and Civilization, 1850-1914. New York/Manchester: New York University Press/Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-1526142375
    Armstrong, K. (1999). A History of God. London: Vintage. ISBN 0-09-927367-5
    Berman, D. (1990). A History of Atheism in Britain: from Hobbes to Russell. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-04727-7
    Buckley, M. J. (1987). At the origins of modern atheism.New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Dr. Gordon Stein, The History of Freethought and Atheismat
    Dag Herbjørnsrud, "The untold history of India's vital atheist philosophy" at the Blog of the American Philosophical Association (APA), June 2020.
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  6. State atheism | Religion-wiki | Fandom › wiki › State_atheism
    • Origins
    • Religion Under Communist Regimes
    • Albania
    • The Soviet Union
    • The People's Republic of China
    • Cambodia Under The Khmer Rouge
    • Mongolian People's Republic
    • Cuba
    • North Korea
    • Continuing State Atheism

    During the French Revolution, for the first time in history, a society delved into the prospect of an atheist state. After the Revolution, Jacques Hébert, a radical revolutionary journalist, and Anacharsis Cloots, a politician, had successfully campaigned for the proclamation of the antitheistic Cult of Reason, which was adopted by the French Republic on November 10, 1793, though abandoned May 7, 1794 in favor its deistic replacement the Cult of the Supreme Being. Cloots maintained that "Reason" and "Truth" were "supremely intolerant" and that the daylight of atheism would make the lesser lights of religious night disappear. The state then further pushed its campaign of dechristianization, which included removal and destruction of religious objects from places of worship and the transformation of churches into "Temples of the Goddess of Reason", culminating in a celebration of Reason in Notre Dame Cathedral. Counterrevolution against the anticlerical aspects of the Revolution led to...

    By 1970 all 22 nations of central and eastern Europe which were behind the Iron Curtain were de jure Atheistic, promoting it, ideologically linked to it and opposed on principal to all religion.Communist regimes elsewhere took similar approaches. According to Karl Marx the founder of the communist ideology, religion is a tool utilized by the ruling classes whereby the masses can briefly relieve their suffering via the act of experiencing religious emotions. It is in the interest of the ruling classes to instill in the masses the religious conviction that their current suffering will lead to eventual happiness. Therefore, as long as the public believes in religion, they will not attempt to make any genuine effort to understand and overcome the real source of their suffering, which in Marx's opinion was their non-Communist economic system.Marx saw religion as the "opium of the people" in the sense that it was used to control the masses. Critics argue that this has motivated certain co...

    The modern Albanian state since declaring Independence in 1912 from the Ottoman Empire, and achieving international recognition a year later, has never declared an official religion while upholding that no religion is part of Albanian national identity. After political stabilization in 1920s and 1930s the Albanian Monarchy in a series of reforms towards the development of the country stipulated that the state should be neutral in matters of religion, with no official religion and free exercise of religion for all faiths. Neither in government nor in the school system should favor be shown to any one faith over another. In 1923, following the 11-point government program, the Albanian Muslim congress, convened in the capital, decided to break with the Caliphate, established a new form of prayer (standing, instead of the traditional salat ritual), banished polygamy and the mandatory use of the veil (hijab) by women in public, which had all been forced on the urban population by the Ott...

    State atheism in the Soviet Union was known as "gosateizm,and was based on the ideology of Marxism-Leninism. As the founder of the Soviet state V. I. Lenin put it: Marxism-Leninism has consistently advocated the control, suppression, and, ultimately, the elimination of religious beliefs. Within about a year of the revolution the state expropriated all church property, including the churches themselves, and in the period from 1922 to 1926, 28 Russian Orthodox bishops and more than 1,200 priests were killed (a much greater number was subjected to persecution). In the 1920s and 1930s, such organizations as the League of the Militant Godless ridiculed all religions and harassed believers. Atheism was propagated through schools, communist organizations (such as the Young Pioneer Organization), and the media. Though Lenin originally introduced the Gregorian calendar to the Soviets subsequent efforts to re-organise the week for the purposes of improving worker productivity with the introdu...

    The People's Republic of China was established in 1949 and since then the government has been officially atheist. For much of its early history maintained a hostile attitude toward religion which was seen as emblematic of feudalism and foreign colonialism. Houses of worship, including temples, mosques, and churches, were converted into non-religious buildings for secular use. In the early years of the People's Republic, religious belief or practice was often discouraged because it was regarded by the government as backward and superstitious and because some Communist leaders, ranging from Vladimir Lenin to Mao Zedong, had been critical of religious institutions. During the Cultural Revolution, religion was condemned as feudalistic and thousands of religious buildings were looted and destroyed. This attitude, however, relaxed considerably in the late 1970s, with the end of the Cultural Revolution. The 1978 Constitution of the People's Republic of China guaranteed "freedom of religion...

    Though the constitution of Democratic Kampuchea guaranteed the right to worship according to any religion and the right not to worship according to any religion, it also provided that "Reactionary religions which are detrimental to Democratic Kampuchea and Kampuchean people are absolutely forbidden." The leader of the Khmer Rouge, Pol Pot, suppressed Cambodia's Buddhists: monks were defrocked; temples and artifacts, including statues of Buddha, were destroyed; and people praying or expressing other religious sentiments were often killed. The Christian and Muslim communities were among the most persecuted, as well. The Roman Catholic cathedral of Phnom Penh was completely razed. The Khmer Rouge forced Muslims to eat pork, which they regard as an abomination. Many of those who refused were killed. Christian clergy and Muslim imams were executed. Forty-eight percent of Cambodia's Christians were killed because of their religion.

    In 1936, and especially after Japanese encroachments had given the Soviets enough reason to deploy Soviet troops in Mongolia in 1937, a whole-scale attack on the Buddhist faith began. At the same time, Soviet-style purges took place in the Communist Party and in the Mongolian army. Mongolia's leader at that time was Khorloogiin Choibalsan, a follower of Joseph Stalin who emulated many of the policies Stalin had implemented in the Soviet Union. The purges lead to the almost complete eradiction of Lamaismin the country, and cost an estimated 30,000-35,000 lives.

    Originally more tolerant of religion, after the Bay of Pigs Invasion, Cuba began arresting many believers and shutting down religious schools, its prisons since the 1960s being filled with clergy. Since the fall of the Soviet Union, Cuba has amended its statutes to declare itself a "secular state" rather than atheisticbut, as a practical matter, it continues to harshly repress believers.

    North Korea exercises total control over its citizens, mandating both state atheism and a cultof personality around its leader.

    While much of communism is now defunct, the remaining communist states of China, Vietnam, North Korea and Cuba, despite some economic liberalization, continue to persecute the religious.In addition to overt persecution, these states also seek to control religion by forcing upon the people state sanctioned churches, essentially attempting to make the churches tools of the state.

  7. Wikipedia

    Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia, created and edited by volunteers around the world and hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation.

  8. State atheism - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia Reader › en › State_atheism

    State atheism is the incorporation of positive atheism or non-theism into political regimes. It may also refer to large-scale secularization attempts by governments. It is a form of religion-state relationship that is usually ideologically linked to irreligion and the promotion of irreligion to some extent.

  9. State atheism | Atheism | Fandom › wiki › State_atheism

    State atheism is a ideology similar to what is found in theocracies. In this spectrum, Atheism is the official "religion" of a country. Invented in 1917 by Communist revolutionary Vladimir Lenin, State Atheism has become a popular choice throughout the 20th century within Communist nations.

  10. State atheism wiki | TheReaderWiki › en › State_atheism

    State atheism is the incorporation of positive atheism or non-theism into political regimes. It may also refer to large-scale secularization attempts by governments. It is a form of religion-state relationship that is usually ideologically linked to irreligion and the promotion of irreligion to some extent.

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