Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) is an uncommon complication of either a strep throat or a streptococcal skin infection. It is classified as a type III hypersensitivity reaction. Symptoms of PSGN develop within 10 days following a strep throat or 3 weeks following a GAS skin infection. PSGN involves inflammation of the kidney.
Streptococcal pharyngitis, also known as strep throat, is an infection of the back of the throat including the tonsils caused by group A streptococcus (GAS). Common symptoms include fever, sore throat, red tonsils, and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck.
S. pyogenes is the cause of many human diseases, ranging from mild superficial skin infections to life-threatening systemic diseases. Infections typically begin in the throat or skin. The most striking sign is a strawberry-like rash. Examples of mild S. pyogenes infections include pharyngitis (strep throat) and localized skin infection .
Group B streptococcal infection, also known as Group B streptococcal disease or just Group B strep, is the infection caused by the bacterium Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) (also known as group B streptococcus or GBS). GBS infection can cause serious illness and sometimes death, especially in newborns, the elderly, and people with ...
- Group B streptococcal disease
Pathogenesis and classification. In addition to streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat), certain Streptococcus species are responsible for many cases of pink eye, meningitis, bacterial pneumonia, endocarditis, erysipelas, and necrotizing fasciitis (the 'flesh-eating' bacterial infections).
It can also develop after an episode of Impetigo or any group A streptococcal infection in the skin (this differs from acute rheumatic fever which only follows group A streptococcal pharyngitis).   It is the result of the autoimmune response to the streptococcal infection affecting part of the kidney.
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- Clinical significance
Streptococci (plural of streptococcus) are bacteria that are commonly found harmlessly living in the human respiratory, gut and genitourinary systems. Several species are capable of causing disease in humans, including skin diseases.
Skin diseases due to direct infection with streptococcus include: In addition, streptococci are capable of causing skin disease through means other than direct infection of the skin; for example: These bacteria occasionally cause infections similar to Lancefield Group A and usually affect the elderly or chronically ill patient.
Streptococci are classified as Gram-positive cocci based on their appearance under a microscope. They are spherical or ovoid in shape and tend to forms chains with each other.
Streptococci that cause human disease are usually facultative anaerobes; that is, they prefer lower levels of oxygen in their environment. Streptococci are further classified into subtypes based on sugar chains expressed on their outer shell (Lancefield group) and their behaviour when grown in the laboratory (alpha- or beta- haemolysis). Most streptococci important in skin infections belong to the Lancefield groups A, C and G, and are beta-haemolytic. Streptococci pneumoniae (pneumococci) are bacteria important in pneumonia and meningitis but rarely cause skin disease. Pneumococci are alpha-haemolytic and do not belong to the Lancefield group.
Several of these products produce an antibody response in the patient's blood that aids in detection of recent streptococcal infection (eg, anti-DNAase, anti-streptolysin). These can help in the diagnosis of rheumatic fever, post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis and erythema nodosum.
S pneumoniae bacteria may live in the throat and nose of healthy people. They produce a sticky substance on their outer shell which enables them to attach to the lining of the nose or throat and invade, causing infections in some patients. Most infections involve the respiratory tract or meninges but pneumococci occasionally causes cellulitis. Cellulitis due to pneumococci usually affects patients with connective tissue disease or HIV infection.
It can be difficult to distinguish clinically between skin infection caused by streptococci and other bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. Antibiotics should therefore be chosen to cover the most likely organisms. Flucloxacillin is more appropriate than simple penicillin as it treats both Staphylococcus (staph) and strep. If the laboratory has confirmed streptococcal infection, then the most appropriate antibiotic is usually penicillin. All streptococci in the Lancefield group are very sensitive to penicillin. Those patients with penicillin allergy may be given erythromycin or a cephalosporin (eg, ceftriaxone), which are effective against most streptococci although some erythromycin resistance is emerging. In very severe S. pyogenes infections, such as necrotising fasciitis, clindamycin may be added to penicillin as very large numbers of bacteria may overwhelm penicillin's mechanism of action. Pneumococcal skin infections are generally treated with penicillin but low levels of resistance have recently been reported. In more serious infections, ceftriaxone or vancomycin may be more appropriate.
But, each type of skin infection caused by staph bacteria is different. A few common skin infections caused by staph bacteria are: Boils – Boils are the most common type of staph infection, they are pockets of white pus that start where a hair follicle or oil gland is. The boil is tender and red where the infection is located on the skin.
Erysipelas, also known as St. Anthony's fire, is a relatively common bacterial infection of the superficial layer of the skin (upper dermis), extending to the superficial lymphatic vessels within the skin, characterized by a raised, well-defined, tender, bright red rash, typically on the face or legs, but which can occur anywhere on the skin.
- Risk Factors
Strep throat is a bacterial infection that can make your throat feel sore and scratchy. Strep throat accounts for only a small portion of sore throats.If untreated, strep throat can cause complications, such as kidney inflammation or rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever can lead to painful and inflamed joints, a specific type of rash, or heart valve damage.Strep throat is most common in children, but it affects people of all ages. If you or your child has signs or symptoms of strep throat, see yo...
Signs and symptoms of strep throat can include: 1. Throat pain that usually comes on quickly 2. Painful swallowing 3. Red and swollen tonsils, sometimes with white patches or streaks of pus 4. Tiny red spots on the area at the back of the roof of the mouth (soft or hard palate) 5. Swollen, tender lymph nodes in your neck 6. Fever 7. Headache 8. Rash 9. Nausea or vomiting, especially in younger children 10. Body achesIt's possible for you or your child to have many of these signs and symptoms...
The cause of strep throat is bacteria known as Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A streptococcus.Streptococcal bacteria are highly contagious. They can spread through airborne droplets when someone with the infection coughs or sneezes, or through shared food or drinks. You can also pick up the bacteria from a doorknob or other surface and transfer them to your nose, mouth or eyes.
Several factors can increase your risk of strep throat infection: 1. Young age. Strep throat occurs most commonly in children. 2. Time of year. Although strep throat can occur anytime, it tends to circulate in winter and early spring. Strep bacteria flourish wherever groups of people are in close contact.
Although strep throat isn't dangerous, it can lead to serious complications. Antibiotic treatment reduces the risk.
To prevent strep infection: 1. Clean your hands. Proper hand cleaning is the best way to prevent all kinds of infections. That's why it's important to clean your own hands regularly and to teach your children how to clean their hands properly using soap and water or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. 2. Cover your mouth. Teach your children to cover their mouths when they cough or sneeze. 3. Don't share personal items. Don't share drinking glasses or eating utensils. Wash dishes in hot, soapy w...