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  1. Trafalgar Square - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Trafalgar_Square

    Trafalgar Square (/ t r ə ˈ f æ l ɡ ər / trə-FAL-gər) is a public square in the City of Westminster, Central London, established in the early 19th century around the area formerly known as Charing Cross.

  2. Trafalgar Square - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ...

    simple.m.wikipedia.org › wiki › Trafalgar_Square

    Trafalgar Square is in the heart of London. It is a large pedestrian square, bounded on three sides by roads. It serves as a refuge, and a major traffic intersection. . Important roads go from the square: Whitehall goes to Parliament, the Mall goes to Buckingham Palace, and the Strand goes to the City o

  3. National Heroes Square - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Trafalgar_Square,_Barbados

    National Heroes Square, formerly Trafalgar Square, is located in Bridgetown, the capital and principal commercial centre of the island-nation of Barbados.The square lies along Upper Broad Street and is on the northern shore of the Careenage ("Constitution River"), found directly in the centre of Bridgetown.

  4. Fourth plinth, Trafalgar Square - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › Fourth_plinth,_Trafalgar_Square
    • Overview
    • The plinths
    • Proposals for permanent statues
    • Other uses

    The Fourth plinth is the northwest plinth in Trafalgar Square in central London. It was originally intended to hold an equestrian statue of William IV, but remained bare due to insufficient funds. For over 150 years the fate of the plinth was debated; in 1998, the Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce commissioned three contemporary sculptures to be displayed temporarily on the plinth. Shortly afterwards, Chris Smith, Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Spo

    There is a plinth at each of the four corners of the square. The two southern plinths carry sculptures of Henry Havelock and Charles James Napier. The northern plinths are larger than those in the southern corners, as they were designed to have equestrian statues, and indeed the northeastern plinth has one of George IV. The fourth plinth on the northwest corner, designed by Sir Charles Barry and built in 1841, was intended to hold an equestrian statue of William IV but remained empty due to insu

    The best use of the fourth plinth remains the subject of debate and discussion. Proposals for permanent statues have included: 1. Nelson Mandela Statue: On 24 March 2003, an appeal was launched by Wendy Woods, the widow of the anti-apartheid journalist Donald Woods, hoping to raise £400,000 to pay for a 9-foot-high statue of Nelson Mandela by Ian Walters. The relevance of the location was that South Africa House, the South African high commission, scene of many anti-apartheid demonstrations, is

    Commercial companies have used the plinth, usually without permission, as a platform for publicity stunts, including a model of David Beckham by Madame Tussauds during the 2002 FIFA World Cup. The London-based American harmonica player Larry Adler jokingly suggested erecting a statue of Moby-Dick, which would then be called the "Plinth of Whales". A television ident for the British TV station Channel 4 shows a CGI Channel 4 logo on top of the fourth plinth.

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  6. Trafalgar Square – Wikipédia

    hu.wikipedia.org › wiki › Trafalgar_Square
    • története
    • Közlekedés
    • Források
    • Külső Hivatkozások

    A 18. század második felében a mostani szökőkutak helyén királyi istállók voltak, a Nemzeti Arcképtár helyén pedig Cherringe falu temetőkertje terült el. John Nash városrendezési terveinek köszönheti a tér létrejöttét. Nash lebontatta a királyi istállókat, s felépítette azokat a Buckingham Palota oldalában. Egy teljesen egyenes, fő közlekedési utat akart nyitni a Bloomsbury városrész felől a Temze-partig. Terve nem valósult meg az ő életében, de a teret kikövezték. Cherringe falucska két világ közé ékelődött be, egyik oldalán előbb a Szent James Palota (St. James’s Palace), majd a Buckingham Palota, s ezek közelében az előkelőek kisebb palotái, árnyas sétányai, parkjai, a másik nyugati oldalon szűk utcák, s szórakoztató negyed. Piactér volt a mai Charing Crosspályaudvar] helyén. A tér fokozatosan nyerte el mai formáját. Méltán tekintették az angolok hősüknek Horatio Nelson admirálist, aki legyőzte Napóleont. Nelson a döntő trafalgari csatában maga is halálos sebet kapott. A csata he...

    Metróval a tér a Bakerloo vagy Northern vonalon közelíthető meg, a legközelebbi megálló a Charing Cross, ahonnan kijárat nyílik a tér felé. (A Bakerloo-nak eredetileg volt egy Trafalgar Square nevű megállója, amit később egy aluljáróval összekötöttek az akkor még Strand néven működő megállóval majd átnevezték Charing Cross-ra. Előtte is működött már egy ilyen nevű állomás kb. 300 méterre délre így az lett a mai néven is ismert Embankment. Az átnevezés körüli keverés oka feltehetően az lehetett, hogy az új Charing Cross megálló fizikailag közelebb van a Charing Cross vasútállomáshoz mint a régi - a mai nevén Embankment - megálló.) Közeli állomások még az Embankment és a Leicester Square. A buszjáratok közül a 3, 6, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 23, 24, 29, 53, 87, 88, 91, 139, 159, 176, 453, N2, N3, N5, N9, N11, N13, N15, N18, N20, N21, N26, N29, N41, N44, N47, N87, N89, N91, N97, N109, N113, N136, N155, N279, N343, N550, N551 számúak érintik a teret (az N jelzésűek éjszakai buszok), amelyek kö...

    Művészeti lexikon. 3. kiad. 3. köt. Budapest : Akadémiai Kiadó, 1981-84. Nagy-Britannia művészete l. 426-448. o. ISBN 963-05-2360-4
    Ember Mária: London. Budapest, Panoráma, 1976. Trafalgár tér lásd 111-139. o. ISBN 963-243-082-4
  7. Trafalgar Square – Wikipedia

    fi.wikipedia.org › wiki › Trafalgar_Square

    Trafalgar Square. Trafalgar Square on aukio Lontoon keskustassa. Sen keskellä on Trafalgarin taistelun voittajan Horatio Nelsonin kunniaksi pystytetty muistomerkki, joka kohoaa yli 50 metrin korkeuteen. Aukion alkuperäinen nimi oli King William the Fourth’s, mutta lontoolainen arkkitehti ja maanomistaja George Ledwell Taylor (1788–1873 ...

  8. Trafalgar Square Christmas tree - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Trafalgar_Square_Christmas
    • Overview
    • History
    • Tree
    • Lighting ceremony and carolling

    The Trafalgar Square Christmas tree is a Christmas tree gifted to the people of Britain by Norway each year since 1947. The tree is prominently displayed in Trafalgar Square from the beginning of December until 6 January.

    The Trafalgar Square Christmas tree has been an annual gift to the people of Britain from Norway as a token of gratitude for British support to Norway during the Second World War. The first tree was cut down by Mons Urangsvåg in 1942 during a raid on the Norwegian island called Hisøy. Hisøy Island is located on the west coast between Bergen and Haugesund. After it was cut down, the tree was then transported to England where the Norwegian King was in exile, and given to him as a gift. It ...

    The Trafalgar Square Christmas tree is typically a 50- to 60-year-old Norway spruce, generally over 20 metres tall. The tree is cut in Norway some time in November during a ceremony attended by the British Ambassador to Norway, Mayor of Oslo, and Lord Mayor of Westminster. After the tree is cut, it is shipped to the UK by boat across the sea. At one time it was shipped to Felixstowe free of charge by a cargo ship of the Fred Olsen Line. As of at least 2007, the tree was shipped across the North

    The tree lighting ceremony in Trafalgar Square takes place on the first Thursday in December and is attended by thousands of people. The ceremony, led by the Lord Mayor of Westminster, includes a band and choir followed by the switching on of the Christmas lights. Lewisham Choral Society singing carols in December 2010 Traditionally, the tree provides a focal point for Christmas carolling groups. For many in London, the tree and the accompanying carolling signals the countdown to Christmas. Sinc

  9. Battle of Trafalgar - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Battle_of_Trafalgar
    • Background
    • Fleets
    • Battle
    • Results
    • Consequences
    • 100th Anniversary
    • 200th Anniversary
    • in Popular Culture
    • See Also
    • External Links

    In 1805, the First French Empire, under Napoleon Bonaparte, was the dominant military land power on the European continent, while the British Royal Navy controlled the seas. During the course of the war, the British imposed a naval blockade on France, which affected trade and kept the French from fully mobilising their naval resources.Despite several successful evasions of the blockade by the French navy, it failed to inflict a major defeat upon the British, who were able to attack French interests at home and abroad with relative ease. When the Third Coalition declared war on France, after the short-lived Peace of Amiens, Napoleon renewed his determination to invade Britain. To do so, he needed to ensure that the Royal Navy would be unable to disrupt the invasion flotilla, which would require control of the English Channel. The main French fleets were at Brest in Brittany and at Toulon on the Mediterranean coast. Other ports on the French Atlantic coast harboured smaller squadrons....

    British

    On 21 October, Admiral Nelson had 27 ships of the line under his command. Nelson's flagship, HMS Victory, captained by Thomas Masterman Hardy, was one of three 100-gun first rates in his fleet. He also had four 98-gun second rates and 20 third rates. One of the third rates was an 80-gun vessel, and 16 were 74-gun vessels. The remaining three were 64-gun ships, which were being phased out of the Royal Navy at the time of the battle. Nelson also had four frigates of 38 or 36 guns, a 12-gun scho...

    Franco-Spanish

    Against Nelson, Vice-Admiral Villeneuve, sailing on his flagship Bucentaure, fielded 33 ships of the line, including some of the largest in the world at the time. The Spanish contributed four first-rates to the fleet. Three of these ships, one at 130 guns (Santisima Trinidad) and two at 112 guns (Príncipe de Asturias, Santa Ana), were much larger than anything under Nelson's command. The fourth first-rate carried 100 guns. The fleet had six 80-gun third-rates, (four French and two Spanish), a...

    Nelson's plan

    The prevailing tactical orthodoxy at the time involved manoeuvring to approach the enemy fleet in a single line of battle and then engaging broadside in parallel lines. In previous times, fleets had usually engaged in a mixed mêlée of chaotic one-on-one battles. One reason for the development of the line of battle system was to facilitate control of the fleet: if all the ships were in line, signalling in battle became possible. The line also allowed either side to disengage by breaking away i...

    Departure

    The Combined Fleet of French and Spanish warships anchored in Cádiz under the leadership of Admiral Villeneuve was in disarray. On 16 September 1805 Villeneuve received orders from Napoleon to sail the Combined Fleet from Cádiz to Naples. At first, Villeneuve was optimistic about returning to the Mediterranean, but soon had second thoughts. A war council was held aboard his flagship, Bucentaure, on 8 October. While some of the French captains wished to obey Napoleon's orders, the Spanish capt...

    Combat

    The battle progressed largely according to Nelson's plan. At 11:45, Nelson sent the flag signal, "England expects that every man will do his duty". The term "England" was widely used at the time to refer to the United Kingdom; the British fleet included significant contingents from Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. Unlike the photographic depiction above, this signal would have been shown on the mizzenmast only and would have required 12 lifts. As the battle opened, the French and Spanish were in...

    When Rosily arrived in Cádiz, he found only five French ships, rather than the 18 he was expecting. The surviving ships remained bottled up in Cádiz until 1808 when Napoleon invaded Spain. The French ships were then seized by the Spanish forcesand put into service against France. HMS Victory made her way to Gibraltar for repairs, carrying Nelson's body. She put into Rosia Bay, Gibraltar and after emergency repairs were carried out, returned to Britain. Many of the injured crew were taken ashore at Gibraltar and treated in the Naval Hospital. Men who subsequently died from injuries sustained at the battle are buried in or near the Trafalgar Cemetery, at the south end of Main Street, Gibraltar. One Royal Marine officer was killed on board Victory; Captain Charles Adair. Royal Marine Lieutenant Lewis Buckle Reeve was seriously wounded and lay next to Nelson.[c] The battle took place the day after the Battle of Ulm, and Napoleon did not hear about it for weeks—the Grande Armée had left...

    Following the battle, the Royal Navy was never again seriously challenged by the French fleet in a large-scale engagement. Napoleon had already abandoned his plans of invasion before the battle and they were never revived. The battle did not mean, however, that the French naval challenge to Britain was over. First, as the French control over the continent expanded, Britain had to take active steps with the Battle of Copenhagen in 1807 and elsewhere in 1808 to prevent the ships of smaller European navies from falling into French hands. This effort was largely successful, but did not end the French threat as Napoleon instituted a large-scale shipbuilding programme that had produced a fleet of 80 ships of the line at the time of his fall from power in 1814, with more under construction. In comparison, Britain had 99 ships of the line in active commission in 1814, and this was close to the maximum that could be supported. Given a few more years, the French could have realised their plan...

    In 1905, there were events up and down the country to commemorate the centenary, although none were attended by any member of the Royal Family, apparently to avoid upsetting the French, with whom the United Kingdom had recently entered the Entente cordiale. King Edward VII did support the Nelson Centenary Memorial Fund of the British and Foreign Sailors Society, which sold Trafalgar centenary souvenirs marked with the Royal cypher. A gala was held on 21 October at the Royal Albert Hall in aid of the fund, which included a specially commissioned film by Alfred John West entitled Our Navy. The event ended with God Save the King and La Marseillaise The first performance of Sir Henry Wood's Fantasia on British Sea Songs occurred on the same day at a special Promenade Concert.

    In 2005 a series of events around the UK, part of the Sea Britain theme, marked the bicentenary of the Battle of Trafalgar. The 200th anniversary of the battle was also commemorated on six occasions in Portsmouth during June and July, at St Paul's Cathedral (where Nelson is entombed), in Trafalgar Square in London in October (T Square 200), and across the UK. On 28 June, the Queen was involved in the largest Fleet Review in modern times in the Solent, in which 167 ships from 35 nations took part. The Queen inspected the international fleet from the Antarctic patrol ship HMS Endurance. The fleet included six aircraft carriers (modern capital ships): Charles De Gaulle, Illustrious, Invincible, Ocean, Príncipe de Asturias and Saipan. In the evening a symbolic re-enactment of the battle was staged with fireworks and various small ships playing parts in the battle. Lieutenant John Lapenotière's historic voyage in HMS Pickle bringing the news of the victory from the fleet to Falmouth and...

    Novels

    1. Le Chevalier de Sainte-Hermine (1869), by Alexandre Dumas, is an adventure story in which the main character is alleged to be the one who shot Nelson. 2. Trafalgar (1873), a Spanish novel about the battle, written by Benito Pérez Galdós. It is a fictional account of a boy aboard the Santa Ana. 3. In James Clavell's 1966 novel Tai-Pan, the Scots chieftain of Hong Kong, Dirk Struan, reflects on his experiences as a powder monkey on board HMS Royal Sovereignat Trafalgar. 4. In the unfinished...

    In other media

    1. The Battle of Trafalgar is a 1911 silent short film directed by J. Searle Dawley. 2. Jonathan Willcockscomposed a major choral work, "A Great and Glorious Victory", to mark the bicentenary of the battle in October 2005. 3. The BBC marked the bicentenary with Nelson's Trafalgar, a 2005 vivid drama-documentary which took full advantage of the computer generated effects of the time. Presented by Michael Portillo, the two-disc DVD version is still available in 2020 and runs 76 minutes plus ext...

    • 21 October 1805
    • British victory
  10. Trafalgar Square | London Wiki | Fandom

    london.wikia.org › wiki › Trafalgar_Square
    • Overview
    • Fourth Plinth
    • Redevelopment
    • Christmas Ceremony
    • Political Demonstrations
    • Sports Events
    • Ve Day Celebrations
    • New Year Events
    • Access

    The square consists of a large central area surrounded by roadways on three sides, and stairs leading to the National Gallery on the other. The roads which cross the square form part of the A4 road, and prior to 2003, the square was surrounded by a one-way traffic system. Underpasses attached to Charing Cross tube station allow pedestrians to avoid traffic. Recent works have reduced the width of the roads and closed the northern side of the square to traffic. Nelson's Column is in the centre of the square, surrounded by fountains designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens in 1939 (replacing two earlier fountains of Peterhead granite, now at the Wascana Centre and Confederation Park in Canada) and four huge bronze lions sculpted by Sir Edwin Landseer; the metal used is said to have been recycled from the cannon of the French fleet. The column is topped by a statue of Horatio, Viscount Nelson, the admiral who commanded the British Fleet at Trafalgar. The fountains are memorials to Lord Jellicoe (w...

    The fourth plinth on the northwest corner, designed by Sir Charles Barry and built in 1841, was intended to hold an equestrian statue of William IV, but remained empty due to insufficient funds. Later, agreement could not be reached over which monarch or military hero to place there. In 1999, the Royal Society of Arts conceived the Fourth Plinth Project, which temporarily occupied the plinth with a succession of works commissioned from three contemporary artists. These were: 1. Ecce Homo, by Mark Wallinger (1999) 2. Regardless of History, by Bill Woodrow (2000) 3. Monument, by Rachel Whiteread (2001) Wallinger's Ecce Homo – the Latin title of which means "Behold the man", a reference to the words of Pontius Pilate at the trial of Jesus Christ (John 19:5) – was a life-sized figure of Christ, naked apart from a loin cloth, with his hands bound behind his back and wearing a crown of barbed wire (in allusion to the crown of thorns). Atop the huge plinth, designed for larger-than-life st...

    In 2003 the redevelopment of the north side of the square was completed. The work involved permanently closing the main eastbound road there - diverting it around the rest of the square and demolishing part of the wall and building a wide set of stairs. This construction includes two Saxon scissor lifts for disabled access, public toilets, and a small café. Plans for a large staircase had long been discussed, even in original plans for the square. The new stairs lead to a large terrace or piazza in front of the National Gallery, in what was previously a road. Previously access between the square and the Gallery was via two busy crossings at the north east and north west corners of the square. The pedestrianisation plan was carried out in the face of protests from both road-users and pedestrians concerned that the diversion of traffic would lead to greater congestion elsewhere in London. However, this does not seem to have happened; the reduction in traffic due to the London congesti...

    There has been a Christmas ceremony every year since 1947. A Norway Spruce (or sometimes a fir) is given by Norway's capital Oslo and presented as London's Christmas tree, as a token of gratitude for Britain's support during World War II. (Besides the general war support, Norway's Prince Olav, as well as the country's government, lived in exile in London throughout the war.) As part of the tradition, the Lord Mayor of Westminster visits Oslo in the late autumn to take part in the felling of the tree, and the Mayor of Oslo then comes to London to light the tree at the Christmas ceremony.

    Since its construction, Trafalgar Square has been a venue for political demonstrations, though the authorities have often attempted to ban them. The 1939 fountains were allegedly added on their current scale to reduce the possibility of crowds gathering in the square as they were not in the original plans. By March of the year Nelson's column opened, the authorities had started banning Chartist meetings in the square. A general ban on political rallies remained in effect until the 1880s, when the emerging Labour movement, particularly the Social Democratic Federation, began holding protests there. On "Black Monday" (8 February 1886), protesters rallied against unemployment; this led to a riot in Pall Mall. A larger riot (called "Bloody Sunday") occurred in the square on 13 November 1887. One of the first significant demonstrations of the modern era was held in the square on 19 September 1961 by the Committee of 100, which included the philosopher Bertrand Russell. The protesters ral...

    On 21 June 2002, 12,000 people gathered in the square to watch the England national football team's World Cup quarter-final against Brazil on giant video screens which had been erected specially for the occasion. In the early 21st century, Trafalgar Square has become the location to the climax for victory parades; firstly for the England national rugby union team to celebrate victory in the 2003 Rugby World Cup on December 9, 2003, and then on September 13, 2005, when the climax of the victory parade for the England national cricket team's victory against the Australia national cricket team in The Ashes took place there. In 6 July 2005 Trafalgar Square was a gathering place for many London citizens to hear the announcement that they will host the 2012 Summer Olympics. In 2007, Trafalgar Square hosted the opening ceremonies of the Tour de France.

    Victory in Europe Day (V-E Day or VE Day) was 8 May 1945, the date when the Allies during the Second World War formally celebrated the defeat of Nazi Germany and the end of Adolf Hitler's Third Reich. Trafalgar Square was filled with British subjects wanting to hear the formal announcement by Sir Winston Churchill that the war was over. Trafalgar Square was used as a place of celebration and people from all over the country came there. On Sunday 8 May 2005 the BBC held a concert to celebrate the 60th anniversary of VE Day which was hosted by Eamonn Holmes and Natasha Kaplinsky. Many people who lived during the war attended, and many of the much younger generation, but most importantly many old veterans came and told the stories of their hardships during the six years of war.

    For many years, revellers celebrating the start of a New Year have gathered on the square, despite a lack of civic celebrations being arranged for them. The lack of official events in the square was partly because the authorities were concerned that actively encouraging more partygoers would cause overcrowding. Hogmanay at Edinburgh, Scotland has instead been the focus for British New Year celebrations, although since 2005, a firework display centred on London Eye and the South Bank of the Thames, near the square, has given spectators a fitting start to the New Year.

    Nearest London Undergroundstations: 1. Charing Cross- Northern and Bakerloo Lines) — has an exit in the square. The two lines originally had separate stations, of which the Bakerloo Line one was called Trafalgar Square; they were linked and renamed in 1979 as part of the construction of the Jubilee Line, which was later rerouted elsewhere. 2. Embankment- District, Circle, Northern and Bakerloo Lines. 3. Leicester Square- Northern and Piccadillylines) Bus routes running through Trafalgar Square: 6, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 23, 24, 29, 53, 87, 88, 91, 139, 159, 176, 453

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