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  1. Transition from Classical to Romantic music. The transition from the classical period of Western art music, which lasted around 1750 to 1820, to Romantic music, which lasted around 1815 to 1910, took place in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Composers began transitioning their compositional and melodic techniques into a new musical form ...

    • c. 1170-1310
    • c. 1360-1420
    • c. 1310-1377
    • c. 500-1400
  2. This article is within the scope of WikiProject Music theory, a collaborative effort to improve the coverage of music theory, theory terminology, music theorists, and musical analysis on Wikipedia. If you would like to participate, please visit the project page, where you can join the discussion and see a list of open tasks.

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  4. › wiki › Romantic_period_in_musicRomantic music - Wikipedia

    Romantic music is a stylistic movement in Western Classical music associated with the period of the 19th century commonly referred to as the Romantic era (or Romantic period). It is closely related to the broader concept of Romanticism —the intellectual, artistic and literary movement that became prominent in Europe from approximately 1800 ...

    • c. 1170-1310
    • c. 1360-1420
    • c. 1310-1377
    • c. 500-1400
  5. The Classical period was an era of classical music between roughly 1730 and 1820. The Classical period falls between the Baroque and the Romantic periods. Classical music has a lighter, clearer texture than Baroque music and is less complex. It is mainly homophonic, using a clear melody line over a subordinate chordal accompaniment, but ...

    • c. 1900-1960
    • c. 1890-1930
    • c. 1900-1930
    • c. 1890-1975
    • Characteristics
    • History
    • Performance
    • Women in Classical Music
    • Relationship to Other Music Traditions
    • Commercialization
    • Education
    • External Links

    Given the wide range of styles in European classical music, from Medieval plainchant sung by monks to Classical and Romantic symphonies for orchestra from the 1700s and 1800s to avant-garde atonal compositions from the 1900s, it is difficult to list characteristics that can be attributed to all works of that type. Nonetheless, a universal characteristic of classical music written since the late 13th century is the invariable appliance of a standardized system of precise mensural notation (which evolved into modern bar notation after 1600) for all compositions and their accurate performance. Another is the creation and development of complex pieces of solo instrumental works (e.g., the fugue). The first symphonies were produced during the Classical period; beginning in the mid 18th century, the symphony ensembleand the compositions became prominent features of Classical-period music.

    The major time divisions of classical music up to 1900 are the Early music period, which includes Medieval (500–1400) and Renaissance (1400–1600) eras, and the Common practice period, which includes the Baroque (1600–1750), Classical (1750–1820), and Romantic (1810–1910) eras. The current period encompasses the 20th century and the 21st-century to date and includes the Modernist musical era and the Contemporary or Postmodernmusical era, the dates of which are often disputed. The dates are generalizations, since the periods and eras overlap and the categories are somewhat arbitrary, to the point that some authorities reverse terminologies and refer to a common practice "era" comprising baroque, classical, and romantic "periods". For example, the use of counterpoint and fugue, which is considered characteristic of the Baroque era (or period), was continued by Haydn, who is classified as typical of the Classical era. Beethoven, who is often described as a founder of the Romantic era, a...

    Performers who have studied classical music extensively are said to be "classically trained". This training may come from private lessons from instrument or voice teachers or from completion of a formal program offered by a Conservatory, college or university, such as a Bachelor of Music or Master of Musicdegree (which includes individual lessons from professors). In classical music, "...extensive formal music education and training, often to postgraduate [Master's degree] level" is required. Performance of classical music repertoire requires a proficiency in sight-reading and ensemble playing, harmonic principles, strong ear training (to correct and adjust pitches by ear), knowledge of performance practice (e.g., Baroque ornamentation), and a familiarity with the style/musical idiom expected for a given composer or musical work (e.g., a Brahms symphony or a Mozart concerto).[citation needed] The key characteristic of European classical music that distinguishes it from popular music...

    Almost all of the composers who are described in music textbooks on classical music and whose works are widely performed as part of the standard concert repertoire are male composers, even though there has been a large number of women composers throughout the classical music period. Musicologist Marcia Citron has asked "[w]hy is music composed by women so marginal to the standard 'classical' repertoire?" Citron "examines the practices and attitudes that have led to the exclusion of women composers from the received 'canon' of performed musical works". She argues that in the 1800s, women composers typically wrote art songs for performance in small recitals rather than symphonies intended for performance with an orchestra in a large hall, with the latter works being seen as the most important genre for composers; since women composers did not write many symphonies, they were deemed not to be notable as composers. In the "...Concise Oxford History of Music, Clara S[c]humann is one of t...

    Popular music

    Classical music has often incorporated elements or material from popular music of the composer's time. Examples include occasional music such as Brahms' use of student drinking songs in his Academic Festival Overture, genres exemplified by Kurt Weill's The Threepenny Opera, and the influence of jazz on early and mid-20th-century composers including Maurice Ravel, exemplified by the movement entitled "Blues" in his sonata for violin and piano. Some postmodern, minimalist and postminimalist cla...

    Folk music

    Composers of classical music have often made use of folk music (music created by musicians who are commonly not classically trained, often from a purely oral tradition). Some composers, like Dvořák and Smetana, have used folk themes to impart a nationalist flavor to their work, while others like Bartókhave used specific themes lifted whole from their folk-music origins.

    Certain staples of classical music are often used commercially (either in advertising or in movie soundtracks). In television commercials, several passages have become clichéd, particularly the opening of Richard Strauss' Also sprach Zarathustra (made famous in the film 2001: A Space Odyssey) and the opening section "O Fortuna" of Carl Orff's Carmina Burana; other examples include the "Dies irae" from the Verdi Requiem, Edvard Grieg's "In the Hall of the Mountain King" from Peer Gynt, the opening bars of Beethoven's Symphony No. 5, Wagner's "Ride of the Valkyries" from Die Walküre, Rimsky-Korsakov's "Flight of the Bumblebee", and excerpts of Aaron Copland's Rodeo.[citation needed] Several works from the Golden Age of Animation matched the action to classical music. Notable examples are Walt Disney's Fantasia, Tom and Jerry's Johann Mouse, and Warner Bros.' Rabbit of Seville and What's Opera, Doc? Similarly, movies and television often revert to standard, clichéd excerpts of classica...

    During the 1990s, several research papers and popular books wrote on what came to be called the "Mozart effect": an observed temporary, small elevation of scores on certain tests as a result of listening to Mozart's works. The approach has been popularized in a book by Don Campbell, and is based on an experiment published in Nature suggesting that listening to Mozart temporarily boosted students' IQ by 8 to 9 points. This popularized version of the theory was expressed succinctly by the New York Times music columnist Alex Ross: "researchers... have determined that listening to Mozart actually makes you smarter." Promoters marketed CDs claimed to induce the effect. Florida passed a law requiring toddlers in state-run schools to listen to classical music every day, and in 1998 the governor of Georgia budgeted $105,000 per year to provide every child born in Georgia with a tape or CD of classical music. One of the co-authors of the original studies of the Mozart effect commented "I don...

    Media related to Classical musicat Wikimedia Commons
    Quotations related to Classical musicat Wikiquote
    • c. 1170-1310
    • c. 1360-1420
    • c. 1310-1377
    • c. 500-1400
    • Background
    • Traits
    • Trends of The 19th Century
    • See Also
    • References
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    The Ro­man­tic move­ment was an artis­tic, lit­er­ary, and in­tel­lec­tual move­ment that orig­i­nated in the sec­ond half of the 18th cen­tury in Eu­rope and strength­ened in re­ac­tion to the In­dus­trial Rev­o­lu­tion (En­cy­clopædia Bri­tan­nica n.d.). In part, it was a re­volt against so­cial and po­lit­i­cal norms of the Age of En­light­en­ment and a re­ac­tion against the sci­en­tific ra­tio­nal­iza­tion of na­ture (Casey 2008). It was em­bod­ied most strongly in the vi­sual arts, music, and lit­er­a­ture, but had a major im­pact on his­to­ri­og­ra­phy (Levin 1959,[page needed]) and ed­u­ca­tion (Gutek 1995, 220–54), and was in turn in­flu­enced by de­vel­op­ments in nat­ural his­tory (Nichols 2005, 308–309). One of the first sig­nif­i­cant ap­pli­ca­tions of the term to music was in 1789, in the Mémoires by the French­man André Grétry, but it was E. T. A. Hoff­mann who re­ally es­tab­lished the prin­ci­ples of mu­si­cal ro­man­ti­cism, in a lengthy re­view of Lud­wig van Bee...

    Char­ac­ter­is­tics often at­trib­uted to Ro­man­ti­cism: 1. a new preoccupation with and surrender to Nature; 2. a fascination with the past, particularly the Middle Ages and legends of medieval chivalry; 3. a turn towards the mystic and supernatural, both religious and merely spooky; 4. a longing for the infinite; 5. mysterious connotations of remoteness, the unusual and fabulous, the strange and surprising; 6. a focus on the nocturnal, the ghostly, the frightful, and terrifying; 7. fantastic seeing and spiritual experiences; 8. a new attention given to national identity; 9. emphasis on extreme subjectivism; 10. interest in the autobiographical; 11. discontent with musical formulas and conventions. Such lists, how­ever, pro­lif­er­ated over time, re­sult­ing in a "chaos of an­ti­thet­i­cal phe­nom­ena", crit­i­cized for their su­per­fi­cial­ity and for sig­ni­fy­ing so many dif­fer­ent things that there came to be no cen­tral mean­ing. The at­trib­utes have also been crit­i­cized...

    Non-musical influences

    Events and changes in so­ci­ety such as ideas, at­ti­tudes, dis­cov­er­ies, in­ven­tions, and his­tor­i­cal events often af­fect music. For ex­am­ple, the In­dus­trial Rev­o­lu­tion was in full ef­fect by the late 18th cen­tury and early 19th cen­tury. This event had a pro­found ef­fect on music: there were major im­prove­ments in the me­chan­i­cal valves and keys that most wood­winds and brass in­stru­ments de­pend on. The new and in­no­v­a­tive in­stru­ments could be played with greater eas...


    Dur­ing the Ro­man­tic pe­riod, music often took on a much more na­tion­al­is­tic pur­pose. For ex­am­ple, Jean Sibelius' Fin­lan­dia has been in­ter­preted to rep­re­sent the ris­ing na­tion of Fin­land, which would some­day gain in­de­pen­dence from Russ­ian con­trol (Child 2006). Frédéric Chopin was one of the first com­posers to in­cor­po­rate na­tion­al­is­tic el­e­ments into his com­po­si­tions. Joseph Mach­lis states, "Poland's strug­gle for free­dom from tsarist rule aroused the na­ti...

    Beard, David, and Kenneth Gloag. 2005. Musicology: The Key Concepts. Cornwall: Routledge.
    Casey, Christopher. 2008. "'Grecian Grandeurs and the Rude Wasting of Old Time': Britain, the Elgin Marbles, and Post-Revolutionary Hellenism". Foundations 3, no. 1:31–64 (Accessed 24 September 2012).
    Child, Fred. 2006. "Salonen on Sibelius". Performance Today. National Public Radio.
    Encyclopædia Britannica (n.d.). "Romanticism". Retrieved 24 August 2010.
    Adler, Guido. 1919. Methode der Musikgeschichte. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel.
    Adler, Guido. 1930. Handbuch der Musikgeschichte, second, thoroughly revised and greatly expanded edition. 2 vols. Berlin-Wilmersdorf: H. Keller. Reprinted, Tutzing: Schneider, 1961.
    • c. 1170-1310
    • c. 1360-1420
    • c. 1310-1377
    • c. 500-1400
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