The most notable characteristics of the Mediterranean Sea are the following:
- Its 46,000 km of coastline bathe the coasts of Spain, France, Italy, Croatia, Albania, Greece and Turkey on the north coast.
- There are no tides in the Mediterranean Sea
- It has a very small swell.
- Its waters have little amount of nutrients due to the low flow that are the rivers that reach it.
- Overfishing and high pollution
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- Location of Mediterranean Sea
- History of Mediterranean Sea
- Mediterranean Sea Countries
- Featured Islands
The Mediterranean Sea lies between the continents of Europe, Asia and Africa and separates and connects the continents at the same time. It is found bathing the coasts of Algeria, Greece, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Egypt, France, Israel, Italy, and other countries. In its southern part it is linked to the Red Seaby means of the Suez Canal. It is located where the African and Eurasianplates are connected.
It was formed by geological movements. As it is located above the plates, different volcanoes and marble quarries were formed. In ancient times it was thought that it was a remnant of the sea of Thetis, during the Jurassic period and late Cretaceousthe plates formed what we know today as Africa, Arabia and India and closed the ocean Thetis. According to geologists, the Mediterranean was already formed and began to close due to the rapprochement of Africa with Europe which produced the evaporation of water drying the basin. Then, it was filled again thanks to the flood of Zancliense.
The first civilization was Sumerian in the 4th millennium B.C. and some time later the civilization managed to expand into Syria, Lebanon and Israel. These civilizations managed to advance in agriculture and animal domestication. Later the Assyrian, Hittite and Asia Minor empiresdeveloped. The first cities along the rivers were enriched by maritime trade. Another important civilization that developed was the Greek, which was located northeast of the Mediterranean, in what we know today as Greece, Turkey and some islands like Rhodes and Sicily.
The most notable characteristics of the Mediterranean Sea are the following: 1. Its 46,000 km of coastlinebathe the coasts of Spain, France, Italy, Croatia, Albania, Greece and Turkey on the north coast. 2. There are no tidesin the Mediterranean Sea 3. It has a very small swell. 4. Its waters have little amount of nutrientsdue to the low flow that are the rivers that reach it. 5. Overfishing and high pollution 6. It represents 1% of the surfaceof the oceans. 7. It measures 2.51 million kilometers. 8. The surface temperature of the water depends on the seasonin which it is located. In winter it can reach up to 10°. 9. The salinityof its waters is approximately 38%. 10. It is divided into two different basins by means of an underground barrier that goes from Tunisia to Sicily. 11. It is a quite warm sea, with a lot of rain in the autumn and hot and dry summers. 12. The average rainfall of the Mediterranean Sea is 630 millimetersper year.
The countries close to the Mediterranean Seaare as follows: Spain, France, Italy, Croatia, Albania, Greece and Turkey on the north coast, Lebanon, Syria and Israel in the east, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco in the south.
Several small islands can be found. Some of them are: 1. Large islandssuch as Sicily and Sardinia, located in the western central part. 2. Middle islandssuch as Cyprus, Corsica, Crete, Mallorca, Lesbos and Rhodes. 3. Small islandssuch as Chios, Kefalonia, Corfu, Lemnos, Samos, and Andros in the eastern Mediterranean; Cres, Krk, Pag, Malta in the central Mediterranean; Menorca and Ibiza in the western Mediterranean; and Djerba on the African coast.
In the Mediterranean Sea we can find different marine species. Starfish, snails, thrush fish, octopuses and many marine animals such as fish, cnidarians, mollusks, echinoderms, reptiles such as sea turtles, algae and mammals. In the past, monk seals could be found, but this species is currently in danger of extinctionand few of them remain.
It has a forested sclerophyllous tree canopy with species of the genus Quercus mainly the holm oak. As for shrub vegetation, Kermes oak is abundant. It has a great quantity of arbutus, lianas, peregrine blonde, and others that depend on the humidity of the ecosystem. In the southeastern areas of the peninsula you can find species like the North African vegetation. When the climate is cooler and the aridity of the summer decreases, wooded structures with predominantly oak grovesemerge.
The Mediterranean Sea is one of the seas with the highest pollution rates on the planet, mainly caused by the hydrocarbons that are discharged into its waters. It is considered that, per year, the sea receives between 400,000 and 500,000 tons of oilwhich further contaminates its waters. Pollution directly affects the marine fauna of the planet, because in this sea, is the largest number of marine species. Garbage and plastic bags also join the pollution process. Marine currentsdrag more garbage into the sea, and climate change also affects its waters.
It is an area of great economic importance because it has a strong influence of maritime networks of trade, tourist exploitation with Mediterranean cruises and cities of interest that are very visited during the summer. Its waters, besides bathing the coasts of Europe, form an important connection with Africa.
Apr 02, 2015 · The Mediterranean Sea is an ‘almost’ entirely land lock sea and has ‘miscellaneous’ oceanographic dynamics and water circulation patterns. That makes a rich and unique biodiversity of this Sea, to be recognized as one of the most important places in the world.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant. The Sea has played a central role in the history of Western civilization.
Mediterranean Sea, an intercontinental sea that stretches from the Atlantic Ocean on the west to Asia on the east and separates Europe from Africa. It has often been called the incubator of Western civilization.
A submarine ridge between the island of Sicily and the African coast with a sill depth of about 1,200 feet (365 metres) divides the Mediterranean Sea into western and eastern parts. The western part in turn is subdivided into three principal submarine basins. The Alborán Basin is east of Gibraltar, between the coasts of Spain and Morocco.
Jun 01, 2016 · Nutrient characteristics sustained the levels up to 1.68, 11.00, 8.82, 1.15 and 33.18 μM for reactive phosphates, reactive silicates, ammonium, nitrite and nitrate, respectively. Total nitrogen and total phosphorous were fluctuated between 17.63–118.65 and 0.20–2.80 μM, respectively.
- Ahmed M. Abdel-Halim, Mohamed A. Aly-Eldeen
Dec 16, 2020 · A Mediterranean climate gets its name from the Mediterranean Basin, where the type of weather is mostly consists of dry warmer months and mild, wet colder months.
Jul 27, 2021 · Mediterranean Sea This sea area contains a lot of water, which represents 1% of the world's total seawater. Volume of water it is 3.735 million cubic kilometers and the average depth of the water is 1430 meters. It has a total length of 3860 kilometers and a total area of 2,5 million square kilometers.
Basically the Mediterranean race has a European appearance, brown hair and fair, olive or tanned skin-no darker. Within the Mediterranean race there are Mediterranean sub-races, such as Italian, Greek, Arab, Egyptian, (etc).