- In India, state-owned enterprise is termed a Public Sector Undertaking (PSU) or a Central Public Sector Enterprise (CPSE). These companies are owned by the Union Government , or one of the many state or territorial governments , or both.
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A state-owned enterprise or government-owned enterprise is a business enterprise where the government or state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership. Defining characteristics of SOEs are their distinct legal form and operation in commercial affairs and activities. While they may also have public policy objectives, SOEs should be differentiated from government agencies or state entities established to pursue purely nonfinancial objectives.
- Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. (BSE: 530965, NSE: IOC) According to the 2019 Global Fortune 500 list based on 2018 revenues, Indian Oil's revenues were $77.6 billion dollars, which grew 17.7% over the past year.
- Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (BSE: 500547, NSE: BPCL) Bharat's sales had $42.9 billion in revenues in 2018, up 16.5% in the past year with profits of 1.1 billion.
- State Bank of India (BSE: 500112, NSE: SBIN) The State Bank of India had revenues of $47.3 billion in 2018, ranking as the 236th biggest company in the world.
- Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (BSE: 500104, NSE: HINDPETRO) Hindustan Petroleum, which engages in the refining of crude oil and marketing of petroleum products, was formed in 1974 when the government took over two refining companies belonging to the private sector.
- What Are State-Owned Enterprises?
- Role of SOEs
- Need For Corporate Governance in SOEs
- Governance of SOEs
- Issues of Governance in SOEs
- The Draft Code of Conduct and Ethics For The Pses and Administrative Ministries
- Objectives of The Pses
- Conflict of Interest and Peer Pressure
- Accountability and Responsiveness to The Public
Corporations, whether they are family firms or State enterprises, work within boundaries set by law, by regulations, by those who own and fund them and by the expectations of those they serve. The natures of these boundaries vary country to country and undergo fundamental changes through time. That is why there can be no single generally applicable corporate governance model. Good corporate management means using the physical resources, financial resources, and human resources to get the best results in terms of profitability, productivity, and market capitalization. Corporate governance depends on two factors, namely, the attitudes and the values cherished by the management of the business enterprise, and the external environment in which the company operates. The external environment in which the business operates would include the legislation relating to the functioning of business enterprises covering the entire spectrum from registration of companies, structure, settlement of d...
State-owned enterprises(hereinafter referred to as SOEs) are enterprises that carry out commercial activities on behalf of the State, its owner. They are government-controlled companies or statutory corporations set up by an Act of Parliament, or departmental enterprises of the government like in the defense sector, railways, or telecommunications. The SOEs enjoy characteristics such as distinct legal personality, the appointment of Board by the Government and audit through the Comptroller and Auditor General. The SOEs are controlled by several agencies such as the following: 1. Department of Expenditure (Ministry of Finance) 2. Department of Public Enterprises (Ministry of Industries) 3. Planning Commission 4. Comptroller and Auditor General 5. Secretariat for Industrial Approvals (Ministry of Industries) 6. Director General of Technical Development (Ministry of Industries) 7. Director General of Foreign Trade (Ministry of Commerce) 8. Ministry of Company Affairs in case of SOEs re...
State-owned enterprises play a significant role in national and international economic activity. First, in many developing economies, SOEs are the sole providers of public services (e.g., water and electricity provision, telecommunications and postal services). Secondly, bearing in mind that many developing economies have largely agrarian economies, SOEs regularly account for between 25% and 50% of the urban economy. Thirdly, in economies with less developed private sectors, SOEs can be a major source of employment and job training for the local population. In developed economies, a more restricted economic role is played by the SOEs. A recent study of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) -area SOEs shows that they account for as much as 10% of economic activity, but in general their share of the economy is much lower, with SOEs accounting for 2.5% of national employment on average. SOEs are, however, highly concentrated in infrastructure and other network i...
State-owned enterprises (SOEs) are assets that the government manages on behalf of citizens. Thus, it is essential to ensure that these assets are handled with utmost care and professionalism. For economic growth and development, it is critical that the SOEs perform efficiently. One must understand the fact that the resources utilized by the SOEs are ultimately the public resources. So, when the SOEs are not managed properly, public resources are wasted, funds are channelled away from the productive activities, and the development is ultimately hindered. But when they are governed transparently and efficiently, they can correct market failures, improve public service delivery and play a role in creating fairer and more competitive markets.
Through the SOEs, the Government plays the role of an entrepreneur, planner, investor, regulator and so on. The SOEs are required to function within the framework of national planning and are expected to work as key instruments for the realization of plan objectives. The governance of SOEs is done by the Government by making enabling provisions in the Articles of Association. These provisions cover the following aspects: 1. Check on composition of the Board of Directors 2. Nomination of Government officials on the Board 3. Restrictions on the Board powers 4. Making governmental approval mandatory in some cases 5. Vesting the power to issue directives with the Government The control of the SOEs vests in the Administrative Ministry/Department which oversees the functioning of the enterprise undertakes periodical reviews of performance, sanctions capital schemes and issues formal and informal instructions.
SOEs face some particular governance challenges that can impair/reduce their ability to perform efficiently, create value, and contribute to economic development. One of the main reasons is the unclear accountability of the SOEs. Their accountability is often dispersed among various State bodies with inherently different policy interests. SOEs might serve various political masters who may have different interests. There is no clear line of accountability of the SOEs. This may lead to an excess political influence on the working of the SOEs; or it may leave a vacuum, with passive ownership and limited oversight, increasing the risk that corporate insiders will advance their personal interests rather than those of the enterprise and the general public. Bribery can also be a major issue in the SOEs. Their employees are particularly at a high risk of soliciting and receiving bribes. The contrariant policies of the SOEs such as procuring profits with private companies while dispensing pu...
The objective of the Code is to prescribe standards of integrity and conduct that are to apply to all executives and employees in the PSEs and the officials and employees of the Administrative Ministries concerned with them. The principles stated below underlie and supplement the rules and laws regulating the public and private conduct of the executives/officers and employees of both PSEs and Administrative Ministers.The role of the executives/officers is to assist the PSEs to achieve its objectives as spelt out in the charter constituting the setting up of the enterprise.It is the obligation of every executive/officer and employee of the PSE/Administrative Ministry to hold the Rule of Law and respect for human rights solely in the public interest while making recom...The religion, region, caste, language of the executive will have no influence on his official capacity to work.Executives, officers, and employees of the PSEs/Administrative Ministries should refrain from decisions in respect of which they have reason to believe that they are calculated to benefit any parti...Every executive, officer, and employee in the PSE/Administrative Ministry shall disclose any clash of interest when there is a conflict between public and private interest, or he/she is likely to b...Executives, officers, and employees of the PSEs/Administrative Ministries should be alert to any actual or potential conflict of interest, financial or otherwise and should disclose this to their s...Executives, officers and employees in the PSEs/Administrative Ministries should be consistent, equitable and honest in their treatment of the members of the public, with particular care for the wea...Executives, officers, and employees in the PSEs/Administrative Ministries should accept the obligation to recognize and enforce customer’s right for speedy redress of grievances and be committed to...
Since 2007, the outward FDI from India has matched orBGA MNC NGA NRI SOE FIGURE 3: Service Industries Assets by Ownership Group (in Rs. crore) Notes: BGA = Business Groups; MNC= Foreign Owned ; NGA = Private Independent Firms; NRI = Non Resident Indians; SOE = State Owned Enterprises; 1 Crore = 10 Million rupees Source: Our analysis from Prowess Database, from Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy exceeded inward FDI.
_____ State-Owned Enterprises in India: Restructuring and Growth foreign-controlled ﬁrms (MNC and NRI), divided into ﬁrms controlled by multinational companies and non-resident Indians.
- Sushil Khanna
for setting up the State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) as an instrument of implementing the public policy and to provide a fillip to the private sector to make India a mixed economy. The purpose of this paper is to narrate, in brief, a historic overview of evolving development
Sep 30, 2020 · A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a legal entity that is created by a government in order to partake in commercial activities on the government's behalf. It can be either wholly or partially owned...