en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ojibwe_language#:~:text=Ojibwe / oʊˈdʒɪbweɪ /, also known as Ojibwa,have local names and frequently local writing systems.
- Ojibwe / oʊˈdʒɪbweɪ /, also known as Ojibwa / oʊˈdʒɪbwə /, Ojibway or Otchipwe, is an indigenous language of North America of the Algonquian language family. The language is characterized by a series of dialects that have local names and frequently local writing systems.
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Ojibwe has been called by many names including Anishinaabemowin, Ojibwe, Ojibway, Ojibwa, Southwestern Chippewa, and Chippewa. It is a Central Algonquian language spoken by the Anishinaabe people throughout much of Canada from Ontario to Manitoba and US border states from Michigan to Montana. It is centered around the Great Lakes homeland of the Ojibwe people.
- Terminology: Anishinaabe and Ojibwe
- Algonquian Linguistic Family
- Writing The Language
- Speaking The Language
- Notable Features
- Current State of The Language
Though many may use the terms Anishinaabe and Ojibwe interchangeably, they can have different meanings. Anishinaabe can describe various Indigenous peoples in North America. It can also mean the language group shared by the Ojibwe, Odawa, and Potawatomi peoples. Ojibwe, on the other hand, refers to a specific Anishinaabe nation. Anishinaabeg is the plural form of Anishinaabe and consequently, refers to many Anishinaabe people. Anishinaabemowin, the term often used to describe the language of the Ojibwe specifically, can also be used to describe a language spoken by other Indigenous peoples of North America. Ojibwemowin, sometimes used interchangeably with Anishinaabemowin, refers specifically to the language spoken by the Ojibwe people.
Anishinaabemowin is part of the Central Algonquian language family, which is a group of closely-related Indigenous languages (such as Odawa, Potawatomi, Cree, Menominee, Sauk, Fox and Shawnee) with similar sounds, words and features. The Central Algonquian language is part of the larger Algonquian language family, which spans from the Rocky Mountains (Blackfoot Confederacy territory) to the Eastern Seaboard (where Mi’kmaqis spoken).
Anishinaabemowin began as an orally transmitted language. Historically, there was a specialized form of symbol writing to communicate teachings sacred to the Ojibwe people. While Anishinaabeg continue to honour symbol writing, written forms of Anishinaabemowin using Roman orthography (i.e., the Latin alphabet, such as that used by the Englishlanguage) is the primary form of written communication. Christian priests and missionaries who traveled to Ojibwe territories were the first to write Anishinaabemowin using the Latin alphabet. (See also Indigenous Territory.) Slovenian Roman Catholic missionary Frederic Baraga actively learned Anishinaabemowin as a means of promoting the conversion of Indigenous people to Christianity. As a tool for fellow missionaries, Baraga authored the Dictionary of the Otchipwe Languagein 1853. Otchipwe (a misnomer of Ojibwe) is a basis for the term Chippewa. The writing systems employed by missionaries can best be described as folk-phonetic style. In 1840,...
Traditional knowledge holders share that the language was originally created by Nanaboozhoo(sometimes spelled Nanabozo, also called Wenaboozhoo and Nanabush) after Gizhe Manidoo gave him life, lowered him to the Earth, and gave him the responsibility to name everything in existence. By means of Nanaboozhoo’s task, Anishinaabemowin was born and spoken into existence. Elders often speak about the importance of Anishinaabemowin to Anishinaabe culture and society. In addition to routine communication, the language is essential in the officiating of Ojibwe ceremonies and the repatriationof sacred items as well as in providing a unique way of understanding the world. The survival of Anishinaabemowin is directly related to the survival of Anishinaabe identity and culture. Cultural protocols and understandings are built into Anishinaabemowin communication. For instance, the word boozhoo (“hello”) not only acknowledges the original spirit of Nanaboozhoo and guides relationships based upon re...
Verbs Anishinaabemowin is dominated by verbs. Concepts of life, process and action are woven into the fabric of the language. General categories of verbs used to express a thought in Anishinaabemowin include: 1. Verb animate intransitive (where a living subject is doing something/being a certain way) 2. Verb animate intransitive + object (where a living subject is doing something/being a certain way to a being or thing that remains vague and general) 3. Verb inanimate intransitive (where a non-living subject is doing something/being a certain way) 4. Verb transitive inanimate (where a subject is doing something/being a certain way to a non-living thing) 5. Verb transitive animates (where a subject is doing something/being a certain way to a living being) Genders There are also two “genders” of nouns: animate (living beings with agency) and inanimate (non-living things). Animate and inanimate are linguistic classifications. Depending on which style of noun is used, the verb used to c...
Anishinaabemowin is a considered an endangered language. Assimilationist policies and programs, such as the residential schoolsystem in Canada (and the boarding school system in the United States), have led to the decline of language use. However, there are efforts to revitalize the language. Immersion programs allow students to speak the language regularly. Ojibwe language and teacher education programs (such as those at Lakehead University, Algoma University, University of Manitoba and others) are also central to revitalization efforts, as are publications and print resources (such as the bilingual Oshkaabewis Native Journal), community and workplace language tables, and technology resources (such as video tutorials, webinars and mobile phone apps). Research has demonstrated that Indigenous peoples’ acquisition of traditional languages correlates to increased self-esteem and community well-being, among many other positive gains. In 2017, Prime Minister Justin Trudeauproposed an In...
The Ojibwa: From the Northeast Woodlands in the US and Canada, the Ojibwa are Native North Americans. They are sometimes called Chippewa. In Ojibwa language, they call themselves the Anishinaabe.
Ojibwe Language. (Ojibway, Chippewa, Ojibwa, Anishinaabemowin) Language: Ojibwe--otherwise anglicized as Chippewa, Ojibwa or Ojibway and known to its own speakers as Anishinabe or Anishinaabemowin--is an Algonquian language spoken by 50,000 people in the northern United States and southern Canada. There are five main dialects of Ojibwe: Western Ojibwe, Eastern Ojibwe, Northern Ojibwe (Severn Ojibwe or Oji-Cree), Southern Ojibwe (Minnesota Ojibwe or Chippewa), and Ottawa (Odawa or Odaawa).
- Sound System
Ojibwa dialects tend to have three short and four long vowels. Long vowels below are marked with a macron. The long vowel /ē? lack a corresponding short one. Some varieties of Ojibwa also have nasal vowels (Wikipedia). Some dialects of Ojibwa drop unstressed vowels, e.g, in the Odaawaa dialect, Anishinaabemowin becomes Nishnaabemwin.
Ojibwa dialects usually have 17 consonants. Stops, fricatives and afffricates can be either voiced or voiceless. Voiceless consonants are often aspirated or preaspirated. The semivowel /w/ is pronounced with very little lip rounding. The glottal fricative /h/ occurs in some dialects instead of the glottal stop /?/ (Wikipedia). Ojibwe allows few consonant clusters, mostly in the middle or at the end of words. The voiceless glottal fricative /h/ is only in a small number of words. 1. /ʔ/ = simi...
Ojibwa words are divided into metrical feet. Every two syllables constitute a foot, starting with the beginning of a word. The first syllable in a foot is weak, the second one is strong. Long vowels are always strong. When they occur in the weak position of a foot, they form a separate one-syllable foot, and counting continues starting with the following vowel. In an example from Wikipedia, the word bebezhigooganzhii‘ horse’, is divided into feet as follows: (be)(be)(zhi-goo)(gan-zhii).Like many other polysynthetic aboriginal North American languages, Ojibwa attaches prefixes and suffixes to roots to form long words that in other languages might constitute a whole sentence. For i...Ojibwa is an ergative language. Ergative languages mark the subject of a transitive verb with the ergative case. They mark both the subject of an intransitive verb and the object of a transitive ve...
Ojibwa tends not to borrow words from other languages. Instead, it creates new words by using native elements. For instance, bemisemagak ‘airplane’ literally means ‘thing that flies’. However, there exist a few borrowing from other indigenous languages, especially Cree, from English, e.g., gaapi ‘coffee’, and from French,e.g., boozhoo‘bonjour’. Below are a few basic words and phrases in Ojibwa. Below are Ojibwa numerals 1-10.
There is no standard orthography for writing Ojibwa. 1. In the U.S., Ojibwa is usually written with the Roman alphabet. There are several Romanized systems for writing the language (Wikipedia). The newest Roman character-based writing system is the Double Vowel System. In this system, long vowels are written with double vowel symbols, e.g., a long /a/ is written as aa. The Double Vowel System is quickly becoming accepted due to its ease, especially in computer applications. 2. In Canada, Ojibwa is written inCanadian Aboriginal syllabic writing, or simply syllabics. Syllabics have also been occasionally used in the U.S. by border communities. Below is a table of Ojibwa syllabics (from Wikipedia). Take a look at Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Northwestern Ojibwa.
Chippewa (also known as Southwestern Ojibwa, Ojibwe, Ojibway, or Ojibwemowin) is an Algonquian language spoken from upper Michigan westward to North Dakota in the United States. It represents the southern component of the Ojibwe language. Its ISO-3 designation is "ciw".
Chippewa (Ojibwemowin) Chippewa is an Algonquian language spoken by some 7,000 people in Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota and Montana in the USA. It is part of the Ojibwe dialect continuum known as Anishinaabemowin, and also known as Southwestern Ojibwa, Ojibwe, Ojibway, or Ojibwemowin.