What country invaded Mexico?
- The French Intervention is the period when France invaded Mexico (1861), nominally to collect on defaulted loans to the liberal government of Benito Juárez, but it went further and at the invitation of Mexican conservatives seeking to restore monarchy in Mexico, and to set Maximilian I on the Mexican throne.
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Mexican–American War; Clockwise from top left: Winfield Scott entering Plaza de la Constitución after the Fall of Mexico City, U.S. soldiers engaging the retreating Mexican force during the Battle of Resaca de la Palma, U.S. victory at Churubusco outside Mexico City, marines storming Chapultepec castle under a large U.S. flag, Battle of Cerro Gordo
- April 25, 1846 – February 2, 1848
- Mexican Cession
A defensive war was declared by Mexico in April 23, 1846. Nearly 2000 Mexican troops attacked the American troops who had crossed the border. This led to an all out assault again the Mexican forces. America managed to capture California in 1847. The New Mexico city was captured soon after. Nearly 1000 Mexican soldiers lost their lives in the war.
Mexican War of Independence. Not to be confused with the Mexican Revolution in the early 20th century. The Mexican War of Independence (Spanish: Guerra de Independencia de México, 16 September 1810 – 27 September 1821) was an armed conflict and political process resulting in Mexico 's independence from Spain.
- 16 September 1810 – 27 September 1821, (11 years, 1 week and 4 days)
- Independence agreement, Treaty of Córdoba, First Mexican Empire is established, Signing of the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire, Spain would not recognize Mexican independence until signing of Santa María–Calatrava Treaty in 1836
The Mexican-American War (1846-1848) marked the first U.S. armed conflict chiefly fought on foreign soil. It pitted a politically divided and militarily unprepared Mexico against the expansionist ...
The Man Who Won The West Mexican War 1846 – 1848. A-M #00-a Inside Front Cover. A-M #00-b Inside Back Cover. A-M #01. A-M #02.
- The U.S. Had Superior Firepower
- Better Generals
- Better Junior Officers
- Infighting Among The Mexicans
- Poor Mexican Leadership
- Better Resources
- Mexico's Problems
Artillery (cannons and mortars) was an important part of warfare in 1846. The Mexicans had decent artillery, including the legendary St. Patrick's Battalion, but the Americans had the best in the world at the time. American cannon crews had roughly double the effective range of their Mexican counterparts and their deadly, accurate fire made the difference in several battles, most notably the Battle of Palo Alto. Also, the Americans first deployed the "flying artillery" in this war: relatively lightweight but deadly cannons and mortars that could be swiftly redeployed to different parts of the battlefield as needed. This advance in artillery strategy greatly helped the American war effort.
The American invasion from the north was led by General Zachary Taylor, who would later become President of the United States. Taylor was an excellent strategist: when faced with the imposingly fortified city of Monterrey, he saw its weakness right away: the fortified points of the city were too far from one another: his battle plan was to pick them off one by one. The second American army, attacking from the east, was led by General Winfield Scott, probably the best tactical General of his generation. He liked to attack where he was least expected and more than once surprised his opponents by coming at them from seemingly out of nowhere. His plans for battles such as Cerro Gordo and Chapultepec were masterful. The Mexican Generals, such as the legendarily inept Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, were way outclassed.
The Mexican-American War was the first in which officers trained at the West Point Military Academy saw serious action. Time and again, these men proved the value of their education and skill. More than one battle turned on the actions of a brave Captain or Major. Many of the men who were junior officers in this war would become Generals 15 years later in the Civil War, including Robert E. Lee, Ulysses S. Grant, P.G.T. Beauregard, George Pickett, James Longstreet, Stonewall Jackson, George McClellan, George Meade, Joseph Johnston, and others. General Winfield Scott himself said that he would not have won the war without the men from West Point under his command.
Mexican politics was extremely chaotic at that time. Politicians, Generals and other would-be leaders fought for power, making alliances and stabbing one another in the back. Mexico's leaders were unable to unite even in the face of a common enemy battling its way across Mexico. General Santa Anna and General Gabriel Victoria hated one another so badly that at the Battle of Contreras, Victoria purposely left a hole in Santa Anna's defenses, hoping the Americans would exploit it and make Santa Anna look bad: Santa Anna returned the favor by not coming to Victoria's aid when the Americans attacked his position. This is only one example of many of Mexican military leaders putting their own interests first during the war.
If Mexico's generals were bad, their politicians were worse. The Presidency of Mexico changed hands several times during the Mexican-American War. Some "administrations" lasted only days. Generals removed politicians from power and vice-versa. These men often differed ideologically from their predecessors and successors, making any kind of continuity impossible. In the face of such chaos, troops were rarely paid or given what they needed to win, such as ammunition. Regional leaders, such as governors, often refused to send any aid at all to the central government, in some cases because they had serious problems of their own at home. With no one firmly in command, the Mexican war effort was doomed to fail.
The American government committed plenty of cash to the war effort. The soldiers had good guns and uniforms, enough food, high-quality artillery and horses and just about everything else they needed. The Mexicans, on the other hand, were totally broke during the entire war. "Loans" were forced from the rich and the church, but still corruption was rampant and the soldiers were poorly equipped and trained. Ammunition was often in short supply: the Battle of Churubusco might have resulted in a Mexican victory, had ammunition arrived for the defenders in time.
The war with the U.S. was certainly Mexico's biggest problem in 1847…but it wasn't the only one. In the face of the chaos in Mexico City, small rebellions were breaking out all over Mexico. The worst was in the Yucatán, where indigenous communities which had been repressed for centuries took up arms in the knowledge that the Mexican army was hundreds of miles away. Thousands were killed and by 1847 the major cities were under siege. The story was similar elsewhere as impoverished peasants rebelled against their oppressors. Mexico also had enormous debts and no money in the treasury to pay them. By early 1848 it was an easy decision to make peace with the Americans: it was the easiest of the problems to solve, and the Americans were also willing to give Mexico $15 million as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.Eisenhower, John S.D. So Far from God: the U.S. War with Mexico, 1846-1848. Norman: the University of Oklahoma Press, 1989Henderson, Timothy J. A Glorious Defeat: Mexico and its War with the United States.New York: Hill and Wang, 2007.Hogan, Michael. The Irish Soldiers of Mexico.Createspace, 2011.Wheelan, Joseph. Invading Mexico: America's Continental Dream and the Mexican War, 1846-1848. New York: Carroll and Graf, 2007.