Who was the leader of the Jacobite rising?
- The Jacobite rising of 1745, also known as the Forty-five Rebellion or simply the '45 ( Scottish Gaelic: Bliadhna Theàrlaich [ˈpliən̪ˠə ˈhjaːrˠl̪ˠɪç], "The Year of Charles"), was an attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the British throne for his father, James Francis Edward Stuart.
A Scottish and English Jacobite force was defeated near Preston in northwest England. 22 Dec: The Old Pretender lands at Peterhead in northeast Scotland, joining Jacobites at Perth before returning to France on 4 Feb 1716. 1722: 24 Sept: The Atterbury Plot. The Bishop of Rochester, Francis Atterbury, a Jacobite leader was arrested and later exiled. 1745
The 1715 Rebellion was on the East coast where the “King over the water” landed in Peterhead. Jacobite sympathisers were crushed and many exiled or escaped. Kildrummy Castle who’s inhabitants, the Erskine Earls of Mar, gave prominent support to the Jacobite cause, remains a ruin to this day on the outskirts of Peterhead.
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Peterhead harbour was being used to land arms and ammunition for the Jacobite cause in 1745 and 1746 and was a constant source of anxiety to the Government. A sloop of war was ordered to Peterhead and was detailed for patrol duty outside the harbour during that critical period.
- What Is A Jacobite?
- First Jacobite Rising
- Second Jacobite Rising
- Third Jacobite Rising
- Final Jacobite Rising 1720-1745
The term Jacobitecomes from the Latin form of the name James, the Stuart king to whom the Jacobites pledged their loyalty. James VII, a Catholic, took the throne of Great Britain in 1685, alarming the English parliament, which feared a renewed Catholic monarchy. A few months after the birth of James VII’s heir, William of Orange and Mary II, supported by the English parliament, arrived in London to seize the throne. James VII fled London, which the English parliament declared as a forfeiture of power. Vowing to uphold Protestantism, William and Mary became joint monarchs of Great Britain.
The first Jacobite rebellion began in May 1689, four months after James VII was deposed, when the Jacobite army, comprised mostly of Scottish Highlanders, took control of the town of Perth, a victory that fueled the Jacobite movement. Though the Jacobites saw several early victories, they were unable to capture Dunkeld, a discouraging loss. In May 1690, government soldiers attacked a Jacobite encampment during the night, killing 300 men. After the attack, Fort William—renamed to honor the Dutch king—was expanded, increasing the presence of government soldiers in the Highlands. Two months later, William’s forces destroyed James VII’s incoming fleet at the Battle of the Boyne off the coast of Ireland. James VII returned to France, ending the first Jacobite Rebellion.
During the 1690s, poor weather conditions led to continued failed harvest, and economic growth in Scotland remained stagnant. William was increasingly unpopular, particularly in the Highlands after the Glencoe Massacre in 1692. His successor, Anne, prioritized the preservation of England against foreign adversaries over the interests of the Scots, doing little to quell dissent in the Highlands. Anne died in 1714, passing the crown to a foreign king, George I. Rallied by the transition of governance, the Jacobite standard was raised, and James Francis, son of James VII, called on Louis XIV of France, to supply an army to the cause. Louis’ death in 1715 stifled French support for the Jacobites, and the army was forced to contend with Hanoverian government forces alone, with James stuck in France. Hanoverian soldiers clashed with the Jacobites on November 13, 1715. The battle was considered a draw, but a Jacobite retreat turned it into a Hanoverian victory, ending the second Jacobite R...
Spain instigated the third Jacobite Rebellion, knowing a domestic crisis would draw English attention from the European continent, allowing Spain to reclaim territory lost during the War of Spanish Succession. An ally in Scotland would also link Spain with the Swedish fleet in the North Sea, so King Philip V of Spain invited James to collect a fleet of ships and sail for Scotland from Spain’s northern coast. Nearly 5.000 Spanish soldiers left to fight for James, but the fleet was devastated by a storm in the Bay of Biscay. The surviving 300 Spanish soldiers joined a force of 700 Jacobites, but the army was destroyed by government forces at the Battle of Glenshiel. James returned to Italy to marry Maria Clementina Sobieska, a wealthy Polish princess. On December 31, 1720, Maria gave birth to the Charles Edward Stuart.
According to legend, the fourth and final Jacobite Rebellion, known as the Forty-Five, started with an ear. Richard Jenkins, a ship captain from Glasgow, claimed to have had his ear cut off by the Spanish while trading in the Caribbean, a violation of the agreement between Great Britain and Spain. Great Britain declared war on Spain, starting the War of Jenkins Ear. At the same time, the War of Austrian Succession erupted across Europe, consuming peripheral conflicts, including the War of Jenkins Ear. Louis XVof France attempted to distract the British with a Jacobite rising in Scotland, led by the 23-year-old Charles Edward Stuart. After a storm destroyed Charles’ French fleet, Louis XV revoked support for the Jacobite cause. Charles pawned the famed Sobieska Rubies to pay for two ships, though one was decommissioned by a British warship immediately after departing for Scotland. Undeterred, Charles and the single remaining ship arrived in Scotland, raising the Jacobite standard. Th...
To ensure another rising would never occur, the Duke of Cumberland dispatched soldiers across the Highlands to find, imprison, and execute any suspected Jacobites. In London, Parliament passed the Disarming Act of 1746, banning the tartan, bagpipes, and the Gaeliclanguage, destroying the Highlander way of life. The Hanoverian government implemented a system of forfeiture, confiscating private lands of suspected Jacobites and repurposing them for agriculture. This system, which became known as the Highland Clearances, lasted for nearly a century. A few months after the defeat at Culloden, Charles fled the country disguised as a woman. He died in Rome in 1788. *This article uses the term “Great Britain” to identify the regions of Ireland, Scotland, England, and Wales.Bonnie Prince Charlie and the Jacobites. National Museums Scotland, Edinburgh, UK.Highland and Jacobite Collection. Inverness Museum and Art Gallery, Inverness, UK.“Jacobites.” A History of Scotland, by Neil Oliver, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 2009, pp. 288–322.Richards, Eric. The Highland Clearances: People, Landlords and Rural Turmoil. Birlinn, 2016.
- Mckenzie Perkins
- Southeast Asian Religion Expert
The Jacobite rising of 1715 was the attempt by James Edward Stuart to regain the thrones of England, Ireland and Scotland for the exiled Stuarts. At Braemar, Aberdeenshire, local landowner the Earl of Mar raised the Jacobite standard on 27 August. Aiming to capture Stirling Castle, he was checked by the much-outnumbered Hanoverians, commanded by the Duke of Argyll, at Sheriffmuir on 13 November. There was no clear result, but the Earl appeared to believe, mistakenly, that he had won the battle,
The Jacobite rising of 1745, also known as the Forty-five Rebellion or simply the '45 (Scottish Gaelic: Bliadhna Theàrlaich, [ˈpliən̪ˠə ˈhjaːrˠl̪ˠɪç], lit. 'The Year of Charles'), was an attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the British throne for his father, James Francis Edward Stuart.