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  1. Zoroastrianism - Wikipedia › wiki › Zoroastrianism

    Zoroastrianism or Mazdayasna is one of the world's oldest continuously practiced religions, based on the teachings of the Iranian-speaking prophet Zoroaster (also known as Zaraθuštra in Avestan or Zarthost in Modern Persian ). Zoroastrianism has a dualistic cosmology of good and evil and an eschatology which predicts the ultimate conquest of ...

    • Zoroaster

      Name and etymology. Zoroaster's name in his native language,...

    • Ahura Mazda

      Ahura Mazda (/ ə ˌ h ʊər ə ˈ m æ z d ə /; Avestan: 𐬨𐬀𐬰𐬛𐬁...

  2. Zoroastrianism - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia › wiki › Zoroastrianism

    Zoroastrianism was the state religion of Persia starting in the 6th century BC, including the Sassanid dynasty. In the 7th century AD, Persia was conquered by Islamic Arabs, and most Persians became Muslims. Nowadays, there are about 2.6 million Zoroastrians in the world. Most of them live in Iran, Pakistan or India.

  3. Zoroastrianism - Wikipedia › wiki › Zoroastrianism

    Zoroastrianism is a releegion fae Iran, forbye mony follaers bide in Indie (whaur they're kent as Parsis) an ither pairts o the warld. The releegion's based on the teachins o the prophet Zarathushtra (kent as Zoroaster an Zartosht an aa), an haes atween 100,000 an 200,000 follaers.

  4. Category:Zoroastrianism - Wikipedia › wiki › Category:Zoroastrianism

    Pages in category "Zoroastrianism" The following 50 pages are in this category, out of 50 total. This list may not reflect recent changes . A. Adur Gushnasp ...

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  5. Zoroastrianism in India - Wikipedia › wiki › Zoroastrianism_in_India

    Zoroastrianism in India has significant history within the country. Zoroastrians have lived in India since the Sasanian period. The Zoroastrians also moved to India in successive migrations during the Islamic period. The initial migration following the Muslim conquest of Persia has been canonized as a religious persecution by invading Muslims ...

  6. Zoroastrianism | Religion Wiki | Fandom › wiki › Zoroastrianism
    • Terminology
    • Distinguishing Characteristics
    • History
    • Relation to Other Religions and Cultures
    • Religious Text
    • The Prophet Zoroaster
    • Principal Beliefs
    • Holidays
    • Zoroastrianism and Ecology
    • Adherents

    The term Zoroastrianism (pronounced: /zɒroʊˈæstri.ənɪzəm/) was first attested by the Oxford English Dictionary in 1874, in Archibald Sayce's Principles of Comparative Philology. The first surviving reference to Zoroaster in Western scholarship is attributed to Thomas Browne (1605–1682), who briefly refers to the prophet in his 1643 Religio Medici. The OED records 1743 (Warburton, Pope's Essay) as the earliest reference to Zoroaster. The term Mazdaism (pronounced: /ˈmæzdə.ɪzəm/) is a typical 19th century construct, taking Mazda- from the name Ahura Mazda and adding the suffix -ism to suggest a belief system. The March 2001 draft edition of the OED also records an alternate form, Mazdeism, perhaps derived from the French Mazdéisme, which first appeared in 1871. The Zoroastrian name of the religion is Mazdayasna, which combines Mazda- with the Avestan language word yasna, meaning "worship, devotion". In the English language, an adherent of the faith commonly refers to himself or hersel...

    Basic beliefs

    Zoroastrians believe that there is one universal and transcendental God, Ahura Mazda. He is said to be the one uncreated Creator to whom all worship is ultimately directed. Ahura Mazda's creation—evident as asha, truth and order—is the antithesis of chaos, which is evident as druj, falsehood and disorder. The resulting conflict involves the entire universe, including humanity, which has an active role to play in the conflict. The religion states that active participation in life through good...

    Other characteristics

    In Zoroastrianism, water (apo, aban) and fire (atar, adar) are agents of ritual purity, and the associated purification ceremonies are considered the basis of ritual life. In Zoroastrian cosmogony, water and fire are respectively the second and last primordial elements to have been created, and scripture considers fire to have its origin in the waters. Both water and fire are considered life-sustaining, and both water and fire are represented within the precinct of a fire temple. Zoroastrians...

    Classical antiquity

    Although older (originating in the early first millennium BCE), Zoroastrianism only enters recorded history in the mid-5th century BCE. Herodotus' The Histories (completed c.440 BCE) includes a description of Greater Iranian society with what may be recognizably Zoroastrian features, including exposure of the dead. The Histories is a primary source of information on the early period of the Achaemenid era (648–330 BCE), in particular with respect to the role of the Magi. According to Herodotus...

    Late antiquity

    When the Sassanid dynasty came into power in 228 CE, they aggressively promoted the Zurvanite form of Zoroastrianism and, in some cases, persecuted Christians. When the Sassanids captured territory, they often built fire temples there to promote their religion. After Constantine, the Sassanids were suspicious of Christians, not least because of their perceived ties to the Christian Roman Empire. Thus, those Christians loyal to the Patriarchate of the Church of the East—which broke with Roman...

    Middle Ages

    In the 7th century, and over the course of at least 16 years (several decades in the case of some provinces), the Sassanid Empire was overthrown by the Arabs. Although the administration of the state was rapidly Islamicized and subsumed under the Umayyad Caliphate, "there was little serious pressure" exerted on newly subjected people to adopt Islam.Islamic jurists considered only Muslims to be perfectly moral, and "unbelievers might as well be left to their inequities, so long as these did no...

    It is believed that key concepts of Zoroastrian eschatology and demonology have had influence on the Abrahamic religions. On the other hand, Zoroastrianism itself inherited ideas from other belief systems and, like other "practiced" religions, accommodates some degree of syncretism. Many traits of Zoroastrianism can be traced back to the culture and beliefs of the prehistorical Indo-Iranian period, that is, to the time before the migrations that led to the Indians and Iranians becoming distinct peoples. Zoroastrianism consequently shares elements with the historical Vedic religion that also has its origins in that era. An example is the relation of the Zoroastrian word Ahura (Ahura Mazda) and the Vedic word Asura (meaning demon). They are therefore thought to have descended from a common Proto-Indo-Iranian religion. However, Zoroastrianism was also strongly affected by the later culture of the Iranian Heroic Age (1500 BCE onwards), an influence to which the Indic religions were not...


    The Avesta is the religious book of Zoroastrians that contains a collection of sacred texts. The history of the Avesta is found in many Pahlavi texts. The twenty-one nasks were created by Ahura Mazda and brought by Zoroasterto Vishtaspa. Here, two copies were created, one which was put in the house of archives, and the other put in the Imperial treasury. During Alexander's conquest of Persia, the Avesta was burned, and the scientific sections that the Greeks could use were dispersed among the...

    Middle Persian/Pahlavi

    Middle Persian and Pahlavi works created in the 9th and 10th century contain many religious Zoroastrian books, as most of the writers and copyists were part of the Zoroastrian clergy. The most significant and important books of this era include the Denkard, Bundahishn, Menog-i Khrad, Selections of Zadspram, Jamasp Namag, Epistles of Manucher, Rivayats, Dadestan-i-Denig and Arda Viraf Namag. All Middle Persian texts written on Zoroastrianism during this time period are considered secondary wor...

    Zoroastrianism was founded by the Prophet Zoroaster (or Zarathustra) in ancient Iran. However, it is debated to exactly when he lived, as estimates range from 1700 BCE to 500 BCE. The precise date of the founding of Zoroastrianism is uncertain. An approximate date of 1500–1200 BCE has been established through archaeological evidence and linguistic comparisons with the Hindu text, the Rig Veda. However, there is no way of knowing exactly when Zoroaster lived, as he lived in what, to his people, were prehistoric times. Zoroaster was born in either Northeast Iran or Southwest Afghanistan. He was born into a Bronze Age culture with a polytheistic religion, which included animal sacrifice and the ritual use of intoxicants. This religion was quite similar to the early forms of Hinduism in India.The name Zoroaster is a Greek rendering of the name Zarathustra. He is known as Zarathusti in Persian and Zaratosht in Gujarati.Zoroaster's birth and early life are little documented. What is known...

    In Zoroastrianism, Ahura Mazda is the beginning and the end, the creator of everything that can and cannot be seen, the Eternal, the Pure and the only Truth. In the Gathas, the most sacred texts of Zoroastrianism thought to have been composed by Zoroaster himself, the prophet acknowledged devotion to no other divinity besides Ahura Mazda. Daena (din in modern Persian) is the eternal Law, whose order was revealed to humanity through the Mathra-Spenta ("Holy Words"). Daena has been used to mean religion, faith, law, and even as a translation for the Hindu and Buddhist term Dharma. The latter is often interpreted as "duty" but can also mean social order, right conduct, or virtue. The metaphor of the "path" of Daena is represented in Zoroastrianism by the muslin undershirt Sudra, the 'Good/Holy Path', and the 72-thread Kushtigirdle, the "Pathfinder". Daena should not be confused with the fundamental principle asha (Vedic rta), the equitable law of the universe, which governed the life o...

    The Zoroastrian faith enjoins caring for the physical world not merely to seek spiritual salvation. Human beings, as the purposeful creation of God, are seen as the natural motivators or overseers of the Seven Creations. As the only conscious creation, it is humanity's ultimate task to care for the universe. The faith endorses the care of Seven Creations (sky, water, earth, plant, animal, human, and fire), as part of a symbiotic relationship. Zoroastrianism sees the physical world as a natural matrix of Seven Creations, in which life and growth are inter-dependent if harmony and perfection is to be the final goal. The sacredness of the creations demands a greater awareness on the part of Zoroastrians, for at the end of time humanity must give to Ahura Mazda a world of "purity", a world in its original perfect state. As an example of their concern, it is a tradition that Zoroastrians never enter a river, to wash in it or pollute it in any way. Purity of nature in their tradition is s...

    India is considered to be home to the largest Zoroastrian population in the world. When the Islamic armies, under the first Caliphs, invaded Persia, those locals who were unwilling to convert to Islam sought refuge, first in the mountains of northern Iran, then the regions of Yazd and its surrounding villages. Later, in the ninth century CE, a group sought refuge in the western coastal region of India, and also scattered to other regions of the world. In recent years, the United Stateshas become a significant destination of Zoroastrian populations, holding the second largest population of Zoroastrians after India. Small Zoroastrian communities may be found all over the world, with a continuing concentration in Western India, Central Iran, and Southern Pakistan. Zoroastrians of the diaspora are primarily located in England and the former British colonies—in particular Canada and Australia. Zoroastrian communities comprised two main groups of people: those of South Asian Zoroastrian b...

  7. Zoroastrianism in Azerbaijan - Wikipedia › wiki › Zoroastrianism_in_Azerbaijan
    • Overview
    • History
    • Zoroastrian architecture
    • Zoroastrianism after Islam arrived in Azerbaijan
    • Novruz

    Zoroastrianism in Azerbaijan goes back to the first millennium BC or earlier and was the predominant religion of Greater Iran before the conversion to Islam. Today the religion, culture, and traditions of Zoroastrianism remain highly respected in Azerbaijan, and the new year Nowruz continues to be the main holiday in the country. Zoroastrianism has left a deep mark on the history of Azerbaijan. Traces of the religion are still visible in Surakhany, Khinalyg, and Yanar Dag.

    One of the world's oldest religions, Zoroastrianism was also practiced in the territory of Azerbaijan in ancient times. Zoroastrianism, sharing its name with its founder Iranian prophet Zoroaster, was one of the first monotheistic beliefs in the world and the official religion in Persia from 600 BCE to 650 CE. Zoroastrians believe in one God, whom they call Ahura Mazda created the universe. The Avesta, the sacred book of Zoroastrianism, consists of two main sections: the oldest section contains

    Zoroastrianism's traces can be found in Baku, Shamakha, Nakhchivan, Mingechaur, Talysh-Mugan areas. The Absheron Peninsula and Baku were centers of Zoroastrianism in ancient times. The Absheron Peninsula was rich in natural undamped torches of natural gas on the shore and in the sea. In the Sassanid era, when Zoroastrianism had risen to the level of state religion, Baku entered a new stage in its urban development. The most popular architectural monument of the city the Maiden's Tower and ancien

    In the 7th century the Arabs conquered Persia including Azerbaijan. During this period many Zoroastrian temples, libraries were destroyed and burned, and many Zoroastrian texts were lost. Zoroastrians were treated as dhimmis as well as Jews and Christians by the Arabs. It means that they could retain their religious practices, but must pay extra taxes. Despite all the difficulties Iranians did convert, Zoroastrianism became a minority religion in Iran.

    The six Gahambar festivals and Novruz are the seven important Zoroastrian festivals. All Novruz traditions are rooted in Zoroastrianism. These festivals occur at the spring equinox. According to Mary Boyce "It seems a reasonable surmise that Novruz, the holiest of them all, with deep doctrinal significance, was founded by Zoroaster himself". The Persian historian Gardizi, in his work titled Zayn al-Akhbār, mentions Novruz among Zoroastrian festivals and points out that Zoroaster highly ...

  8. Tower of Silence - Wikipedia › wiki › Tower_of_Silence

    Zoroastrian exposure of the dead is first attested in the mid-5th century BCE Histories of Herodotus, but the use of towers is first documented in the early 9th century CE. The doctrinal rationale for exposure is to avoid contact with Earth, Water, or Fire, all three of which are considered sacred in the Zoroastrian religion.

  9. Zarathustra | Biography, Religion, & Facts | Britannica › biography › Zarathustra

    Alternative Titles: Zarathushtra, Zartosht, Zoroaster Zarathustra, also spelled Zarathushtra, Greek Zoroaster, (born traditionally c. 628 bce, possibly Rhages, Iran—died c. 551 bce), Iranian religious reformer and prophet, traditionally regarded as the founder of Zoroastrianism. Read More on This Topic

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