1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1993rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 993rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 93rd year of the 20th century, and the 4th year of the 1990s decade. Calendar year.
February 11 – Janet Reno is selected by President Clinton as Attorney General of the United States. February 26 – 1993 World Trade Center bombing: In New York City, a van bomb parked below the North Tower of the World Trade Center explodes, killing six and injuring over 1,000.
- Nobel Prizes
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1. January 1 – Czechoslovakia divides. Establishment of independent Slovakia and Czech Republic. 2. January 3 – In Moscow, George H. W. Bush and Boris Yeltsin sign the second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty(START). 3. January 5 – Washington State executes Westley Allan Dodd by hanging (the first legal hanging in America since 1965). 4. January 9 – Jean-Claude Romandkills his family and tries to burn himself with his home in France. 5. January 15 – Salvatore Riina, the Mafia boss known as 'The...
1. February 11 – Janet Reno is selected as Attorney General of the United States. 2. February 17 – A ferry sinks in Haiti, killing about 1, 200 out of the 1, 500 passengers on board. 3. February 24 – Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroneyresigns amidst political and economic turmoil. 4. February 26 – World Trade Center Bombing: In New York City, a van parked below the North Tower of the World Trade Centerexplodes, killing 6 people and injuring more than 1, 000. 5. February 28 – Bureau of Alco...
1. March 5 – Macedonian Palair Flight 301 crashes after take-off in Skopje, killing 83 out of the 97 people on board. 2. March 12 – Several bombs explode in Bombay, India, killing 257 people. 3. March 24 – The Israeli Knesset elects Ezer Weizmann as President of Israel. 4. March 27 – Jiang Zemin becomes President of the People's Republic of China.January 26 – Cameron Bright, Canadian actorFebruary 7 – David Dorfman, American actorFebruary 19 - Victoria Justice, American singer and actressFebruary 26 – Taylor Dooley, American actress
January – March
1. January 6 – Dizzy Gillespie, American musician (b. 1917) 2. January 6 – Rudolf Nureyev, Russian dancer (b. 1938) 3. January 20 – Audrey Hepburn, Belgian-born actress (b. 1929) 4. January 24 – Thurgood Marshall, American jurist (b. 1908) 5. February 6 – Arthur Ashe, American tennis player (b. 1943) 6. February 24 – Bobby Moore, English footballer (b. 1941) 7. March 3 – Albert Sabin, American biologist (b. 1906) 8. March 20 – Polykarp Kusch, German-born physicist (b. 1911) 9. March 31 – Bran...
April – June
1. April 8 – Marian Anderson, American contralto (b. 1897) 2. April 19 – David Koresh, American cult leader (b. 1959) 3. April 23 – Cesar Chavez, American labor union leader (b. 1927) 4. May 1 – Pierre Beregovoy, French Prime Minister (b. 1925) 5. June 5 – Conway Twitty, American musician (b. 1933) 6. June 9 – Alexis Smith, Canadian actress (b. 1921) 7. June 16 – Nicanor Zabaleta, Spanish harpist (b. 1907) 8. June 19 – William Golding, British writer (b. 1911) 9. June 22 – Pat Nixon, First La...
July – September
1. July 2 – Masuji Ibusi, Japanese writer (b. 1898) 2. July 3 – Don Drysdale, American baseball player (b. 1936) 3. July 31 – King Baudouin I of Belgium (b. 1930) 4. August 21 – Ichiro Fujiyama, Japanese composer and singer (b. 1911) 5. September 12 – Raymond Burr, Canadian actor (b. 1917) 6. September 22 – Nina Berberova, Russian writer (b. 1901) 7. September 27 – Jimmy Doolittle, American general (b. 1896)Physics – Russell Alan Hulse, Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr.Chemistry – Kary Mullis, Michael SmithMedicine – Richard J. Roberts, Philip Allen SharpLiterature – Toni Morrison"Ain't Nothing But a G Thang" – Snoop Doggy Dogg / Dr Dre"Award Tour" – A Tribe Called Quest"Bombtrack" – Rage Against the Machine"Both Sides Of The Story" – Phil CollinsAdrian Mole: The Wilderness Years – Sue TownsendBand of Brothers – Stephen AmbroseBarnyard Dance – Sandra BoyntonBlack Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays – Stephen Hawking
Century: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century: Decade: 1960s 1970s 1980s - 1990s - 2000s 2010s 2020s. Saal: 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989: 1993 ke saal suk ...
- Minor Parties
- National Results
- See Also
- Further Reading
The Liberal Party had dominated Canadian politics for much of the 20th century. The party had been in office for all but 22 years between 1896 and 1984, with the Conservatives/Progressive Conservatives only forming government six times during this period.
An election had to be called in the fall of 1993, since Parliament's term would expire some time in September. By the end of the summer, Campbell's personal popularity was far ahead of that of Chrétien.Support for the Progressive Conservative Party had also increased after Campbell won the leadership, and they were only a few points behind the Liberals, while Reform had been reduced to single digits. With this in mind, Campbell asked Governor General Ray Hnatyshyn to dissolve parliament on Se...
The Liberals had long prepared for the campaign. They had amassed a substantial campaign war chest, almost as large as that of the Tories. On September 19, the Liberals released their entire platform, which the media quickly named the Red Book. This document gave a detailed account of exactly what a Liberal government would do in power. Several years of effort had gone into the creation of the document, which was unprecedented for a Canadian party. Several days later, the Progressive Conserva...
The Bloc Québécois benefited from a surge in support for Quebec nationalism after the failure of the Meech Lake Accord in 1990, which resulted in a number of Liberal and Progressive Conservative Members of Parliament (MPs) organizing the Bloc. The Bloc's leader, Lucien Bouchard, campaigned on promising that the Bloc would represent Quebec's interests at the federal level, with the party running candidates exclusively in Quebec while endorsing and supporting Quebec sovereignty (political indep...
The most important issue of the 1993 election was the economy. The nation was mired in the early 1990s recession, and unemployment was especially high. The federal deficit was also extremely high, and both the Reform and Progressive Conservatives focused on cutting it as the path to economic health. Reform proposed deep cuts to federal programs in order to do this, while the Progressive Conservatives were less specific. The Liberals also promised cuts, focusing on the unpopular and expensive plan to buy new military helicopters to replace the aging Sea Kings. They also promised new programs such as a limited public works programme and a national child care program. The Reform Party called for a "Zero in Three" plan that would reduce the deficit to zero in three years. The Liberals had a far more modest plan to reduce the deficit to 3% of GDP by the end of their first term. All opposition parties pledged to repeal the Goods and Services Tax. Once elected, however, the Liberals renege...
The election was held under the Election Expenses Act of 1974. This forced parties to disclose most donations, but put few limits on who could donate and how much could be given. Individual donations up to $1,150 were given a tax credit, encouraging such pledges. The Conservatives had the largest budget, spending $10.4 million on their national campaign; the Liberals spent $9.9 million, while the NDP spent $7.4 million. The Bloc and Reform both spent less than $2 million on their national campaigns.Actual election spending is far larger than these numbers indicate: each candidate raised substantial amounts of money independently of the national campaign. In this era there were also large expenses, such as polling and fundraising costs, that did not need to be disclosed. In the year of the election, two traditional parties, the Liberals and Conservatives, each received about 60% of their funding from corporations and the rest from individuals. For the NDP half of the funding came fro...
Fourteen registered political parties contested the election, a Canadian record. Jackson and Jackson, in their book Politics in Canada, argue that the proliferation of minor parties was an outgrowth of the single-issue political movements that had come to prominence in Canada in the 1980s. For instance, the environmentalist, anti-abortion, and anti-free trade movements all had closely associated parties. Each candidate required a $1000 deposit, an increase from $200 in the last election. If the candidate did not win 15% of the vote, which none of the minor parties did, these deposits would be forfeit. Parties that nominated 50 candidates qualified as official parties and, most importantly, received government subsidies for advertising. The smaller parties were not invited to the main leaders debate, something Mel Hurtig of the National Party complained vehemently about. The Green Party of Canada Chief Agent Greg Vezina organized a debate between the leaders of seven of the minor par...
The election was a debacle for the Tories. Their popular vote plunged from 43% to 16%, losing more than half their vote from 1988. They lost all but two of the 156 seats they held when Parliament was dissolved—far surpassing the Liberals' 95-seat loss in 1984. It was the worst defeat, both in absolute terms and in terms of percentage of seats lost, for a governing party at the federal level in Canada, and among the worst ever suffered for a governing party in a Westminster system. It is also...
The Liberals swept Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, with only Wayne's win in New Brunswick denying them a clean sweep of Atlantic Canada. They also won all but one seat in Ontario; only a 123-vote loss to Reform's Ed Harper in Simcoe Centredenied the Liberals the first clean sweep of Canada's most populous province by a single party. In both Ontario and Atlantic Canada, the Liberals gained support from many centre-right voters who were fed up with the Tories but found Refo...
The Bloc won 54 seats, capturing just under half the vote in Quebec and nearly sweeping the francophone ridings there. In many cases, they pushed Tory cabinet ministers from the province into third place. This was the best showing by a third party since the 1921 election, when the Progressive Partywon 60 seats. The Bloc's results were considered very impressive since the party had only been formed three years before, and because there were lingering questions about its viability. On paper, th...
The 1993 election is considered a political realignment election with lasting effects on Canadian politics. Since Confederation in 1867, Canada had a two-party system with the Liberals and Conservatives alternating in government. Since the 1920s there had generally been one or more third parties in the House of Commons. None of these parties came close to winning power and of those parties, the CCF was the only one that achieved long-term success. The CCF became the NDP in 1961 by which time it had clearly established itself as the nation's third major party. It eventually gained enough strength to wield the balance of power in the Liberal minority governments of the 1960s and 1970s. After the 1984 election the NDP had ten fewer seats than the Liberals, there was considerable talk that Canada was headed for a UK-style Labour-Tory division, with the Liberals following their UK counterpartsinto third-party status. However, the Liberals recovered enough ground in 1988 to firmly reestab...
This election, like all previous Canadian elections, was conducted under a single-member plurality (or first past the post) system in which the country was carved into 295 electoral districts, or ridings, with each one electing one representative to the House of Commons. Those eligible to vote cast their ballot for a candidate in their electoral district and the candidate with the most votes in that district became that riding's Member of Parliament. The party that elects the most candidates forms the government by appointing its party leader as Prime Minister and its Members of Parliament to the Cabinet of Canada. For a complete list of MPs elected in the 1993 election, see 35th Canadian parliament.Liberal Party of Canada (1993). Creating Opportunity: The Liberal Plan for Canada. Ottawa: Liberal Party of Canada.LeDuc, Lawrence; Pammett, Jon H.; McKenzie, Judith L.; Turcotte, André (2010). Dynasties and Interludes: Past and Present in Canadian Electoral Politics. Toronto: Dundurn Press. ISBN 978-1-55488-88...
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1. 1 januari 1.1. Postverketsmonopol på brevbefordran upphör. 1.2. Mexiko genomför en valutareform som innebär att tre nollor stryks i peson, så att en ny peso (valutakod MXN) ersätter 1000 gamla peso (valutakod MXP). 1.3. Tjeckoslovakien delas upp i Tjeckien och Slovakien . 2. 3 januari – George Bush och Boris Jeltsin undertecknar START II-avtalet, med syfte att reducera kärnvapenarsenalen med två tredjedelar  (70 % ). 3. 5 januari – Liberiatankern MV Braer, lastad med 85 000 råo...
1. 1 februari – EG inleder medlemsförhandlingar med Sverige, Finland och Österrike . 2. 3 februari – Bankstödsnämnden, för rekonstruktion av den svenska banknäringen och de statliga finanserna, instiftas.Den får i folkmunnen namnet "Bankakuten". 3. 8 februari – 132 personer omkommer vid en flygkrock i Teheran, Iran . 4. 16 februari – Över 700 personer omkommer då en överlastad färja sjunker utanför Haiti  5. 24 februari – Sveriges banker redovisar stora förluster, på grund av blan...
1. 1 mars – En landgång till en färja i Kongo-Brazzaville brister, och 146 zaïriska flyktingar omkommer . 2. 4 mars – 175 personer omkommer då ett makedoniskt flygplan störtar vid Skopje, Makedonien . 3. 17 mars – Tele2 bryter det svenska Televerkets hundraåriga monopol när företaget erbjuder utlandssamtal med beställningsnumret 007 . 4. 26 mars – 150 personer omkommer då en överbelastad färja kantrar i Bangladesh .2 januari - Jonna Andersson, svensk fotbollsspelare4 januari – Scott Redding, brittisk roadracingförare.9 januari - Lars Bryggman, svensk ishockeyspelare
1. 1 januari – Ross Bass, amerikansk demokratisk politiker. 2. 4 februari – Björn Andreasson, svensk flygplans- och bilkonstruktör. 3. 6 januari 3.1. Dizzy Gillespie, amerikansk jazztrumpetare och orkesterledare. 3.2. Rudolf Nurejev, sovjetisk balettdansör och skådespelare, död i Aids. 4. 9 januari – Viveca Serlachius, svensk skådespelare. 5. 14 januari – Tage Berg, svensk skådespelare. 6. 15 januari – J. Allen Frear, amerikansk demokratisk politiker, senator 1949–1961. 7. 20 januari – Audrey...
1. 4 april – Göran O. Eriksson, svensk författare och regissör. 2. 8 april – Marian Anderson, amerikansk operasångerska. 3. 12 april – Dagmar Gille, svensk operettsångerska. 4. 13 april – Sten Ardenstam, svensk skådespelare. 5. 17 april – Turgut Özal, turkisk president. 6. 19 april 6.1. Sven-Åke Adler, svensk militär. 6.2. David Koresh, amerikansk sektledare 1986-1993 (Davidianerna). 6.3. George S. Mickelson, amerikansk republikansk politiker, guvernör i South Dakota 1987-1993. 7. 20 april –...
1. 14 juli – Leo Ferré, fransk poet och sångare. 2. 26 juli – Matthew Ridgway, amerikansk general. 3. 27 juli – Reggie Lewis, amerikansk basketspelare. 4. 30 juli – Julius Sjögren, svensk skådespelare. 5. 31 juli – Baudouin I, belgisk kung,. 6. 9 augusti – Euronymous, eg. Øystein Aarseth, norsk musiker, gitarrist i Mayhem. 7. 30 augusti – Kåge Sigurth, svensk TV-producent och manusförfattare. 8. 12 september – Raymond Burr, kanadensisk-amerikansk skådespelare. 9. 27 september 9.1. Paolo Ca...FysikKemiMedicinLitteratur – Toni Morrison, USA
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