- An antibiotic (or antibacterial ) is a chemical compound that kills bacteria or slows their growth. They are used as medicine to treat and cure diseases caused by bacteria. The first antibiotic discovered was Penicillin, a natural antibiotic produced by a fungus.
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An antibiotic is a type of antimicrobial substance active against bacteria.It is the most important type of antibacterial agent for fighting bacterial infections, and antibiotic medications are widely used in the treatment and prevention of such infections.
The following is a list of antibiotics.The highest division between antibiotics is bactericidal and bacteriostatic.Bactericidals kill bacteria directly, whereas bacteriostatics prevent them from dividing.Generic nameBrand namesCommon usesPossible side effectsInfections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Effective against aerobic bacteria (not obligate/facultative anaerobes) and tularemia. All aminoglycosides are ineffective when taken orally as the stomach will digest the drug before it goes into the bloodstream. However aminoglycosides are effective in Intravenous, intramuscular and topical forms.Hearing loss Vertigo Kidney damageInfections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Effective against aerobic bacteria (not obligate/facultative anaerobes) and tularemia. All aminoglycosides are ineffective when taken orally as the stomach will digest the drug before it goes into the bloodstream. However aminoglycosides are effective in Intravenous, intramuscular and topical forms.Hearing loss Vertigo Kidney damageInfections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Effective against aerobic bacteria (not obligate/facultative anaerobes) and tularemia. All aminoglycosides are ineffective when taken orally as the stomach will digest the drug before it goes into the bloodstream. However aminoglycosides are effective in Intravenous, intramuscular and topical forms.Hearing loss Vertigo Kidney damageNeo-FradinHearing loss Vertigo Kidney damage
An antibiotic (or antibacterial) is a chemical compound that kills bacteria or slows their growth.They are used as medicine to treat and cure diseases caused by bacteria. The first antibiotic discovered was Penicillin, a natural antibiotic produced by a fungus.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a pathogenic microbe to develop a resistance to the effects of an antimicrobial medication. The term antibiotic resistance (AR or ABR) is a subset of AMR, as it applies to bacteria that become resistant to antibiotics.
- Medical uses
- Side effects
- Mechanism of action
- Structure-activity relationship
- Mechanism of resistance
Tetracyclines are a group of broad-spectrum antibiotic compounds that have a common basic structure and are either isolated directly from several species of Streptomyces bacteria or produced semi-synthetically from those isolated compounds. Tetracycline molecules comprise a linear fused tetracyclic nucleus to which a variety of functional groups are attached. Tetracyclines are named for their four hydrocarbon rings derivation. They are defined as a subclass of polyketides, having an octahydrotet
Tetracyclines are generally used in the treatment of infections of the urinary tract, respiratory tract, and the intestines and are also used in the treatment of chlamydia, especially in patients allergic to β-lactams and macrolides; however, their use for these indications is less popular than it once was due to widespread development of resistance in the causative organisms. Tetracyclines are widely used in the treatment of moderately severe acne and rosacea. Anaerobic bacteria are not ...
Side-effects from tetracyclines are not common, but of particular note is phototoxicity. It increases the risk of sunburn under exposure to light from the sun or other sources. This may be of particular importance for those intending to take on vacations long-term doxycycline as a malaria prophylaxis. They may cause stomach or bowel upsets, and, on rare occasions, allergic reactions. Very rarely, severe headache and vision problems may be signs of dangerous secondary intracranial hypertension, a
Tetracycline antibiotics are protein synthesis inhibitors. They inhibit the initiation of translation in variety of ways by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit, which is made up of 16S rRNA and 21 proteins. They inhibit the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the mRNA translation complex. Some studies have shown that tetracyclines may bind to both 16S and 23S rRNAs. Tetracyclines also have been found to inhibit matrix metalloproteinases. This mechanism does not add to their antibiotic effects, but has
Tetracyclines are composed of a rigid skeleton of 4 fused rings. The rings structure of tetracyclines is divided into an upper modifiable region and a lower non modifiable region. An active tetracycline requires a C10 phenol as well as a C11-C12 keto-enol substructure in conjugation with a 12a-OH group and a C1-C3 diketo substructure. Removal of the dimethylamine group at C4 reduces antibacterial activity. Replacement of the carboxylamine group at C2 results in reduced antibacterial activity but
Cells can become resistant to tetracycline by enzymatic inactivation of tetracycline, efflux, ribosomal protection, reduced permeability and ribosome mutation.
- History of antibiotic regulation
- Instances of antibiotic misuse
- Social and economic impact
- Antibiotic resistance
- Inappropriate use
Antibiotic misuse, sometimes called antibiotic abuse or antibiotic overuse, refers to the misuse or overuse of antibiotics, with potentially serious effects on health. It is a contributing factor to the development of antibiotic resistance, including the creation of multidrug-resistant bacteria, informally called "super bugs": relatively harmless bacteria can develop resistance to multiple antibiotics and cause life-threatening infections.
Antibiotics have been around since 1928 when penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming. In the 1980s, antibiotics that were determined medically important for treatment of animals could be approved under veterinary oversight. In 1996, the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System was established. Starting in 2010, publications regarding antimicrobial drugs in food became an annual report. Starting in 2012, there was publicly solicited input on how data is to be collected and repor
Antibiotics treats bacterial infections rather than viral infections.
Antibiotics can cause severe reactions and add significantly to the cost of care. In the United States, antibiotics and anti-infectives are the leading cause of adverse effect from drugs. In a study of 32 States in 2011, antibiotics and anti-infectives accounted for nearly 24 percent of ADEs that were present on admission, and 28 percent of those that occurred during a hospital stay. If antimicrobial resistance continues to increase from current levels, it is estimated that by 2050 ten million p
Though antibiotics are required to treat severe bacterial infections, misuse has contributed to a rise in bacterial resistance. The overuse of fluoroquinolone and other antibiotics fuels antibiotic resistance in bacteria, which can inhibit the treatment of antibiotic-resistant infections. Their excessive use in children with otitis media has given rise to a breed of bacteria resistant to antibiotics entirely. Additionally, the use of antimicrobial substances in building materials and personal ca
Antibiotics have no effect on viral infections such as the common cold. They are also ineffective against sore throats, which are usually viral and self-resolving. Most cases of bronchitis are viral as well, passing after a few weeks—the use of antibiotics against ...
There has been significant use of antibiotics in animal husbandry. The most abundant use of antimicrobials worldwide is in livestock; they are typically distributed in animal feed or water for purposes such as disease prevention and growth promotion. Debates have arisen surroundi
Antibiotic use in livestock is the use of antibiotics for any purpose in the husbandry of livestock, which includes treatment when ill (therapeutic), treatment of a group of animals when at least one is diagnosed with clinical infection (metaphylaxis), and preventative treatment (prophylaxis).
Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections. This includes bone and joint infections, intra abdominal infections, certain type of infectious diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, skin infections, typhoid fever, and urinary tract infections, among others.
Amoxicillin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections. These include middle ear infection, strep throat, pneumonia, skin infections, and urinary tract infections among others.
- Hundreds of names
- AU: A, US: B (No risk in non-human studies)
- less than 30% biotransformed in liver
Sulfonamide is a functional group (a part of a molecule) that is the basis of several groups of drugs, which are called sulphonamides, sulfa drugs or sulpha drugs.The original antibacterial sulfonamides are synthetic (nonantibiotic) antimicrobial agents that contain the sulfonamide group.