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  1. Human body temperature - Wikipedia

    Normal human body-temperature is the typical temperature range found in humans. The normal human body temperature range is typically stated as 36.5–37.5 °C. Human body temperature varies. It depends on sex, age, time of day, exertion level, health status, what part of the body the measurement is taken at, state of consciousness, and emotions. Body temperature is kept in normal range by thermoregulation, in which adjustment of temperature is triggered by the central nervous system.

  2. Body temperature - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ...

    From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Body Temperature is the general temperature maintained in the body. Many animals control their body temperature; this is called thermoregulation. For humans, it is generally around 98 degrees Fahrenheit (37 degrees Celsius).

  3. Skin temperature - Wikipedia

    Skin temperature is the temperature of the outermost surface of the body. Normal human skin temperature on the trunk of the body varies between 33.5 and 36.9 °C, though the skin's temperature is lower over protruding parts, like the nose, and higher over muscles and active organs. Recording skin temperature presents extensive difficulties. Although it is not a clear indicator of internal body temperature, skin temperature is significant in assessing the healthy function of skin. Some ...

    • Methods of Measurement
    • Variations
    • Concepts
    • Temperature Variation
    • Historical Understanding

    Tak­ing a per­son's tem­per­a­ture is an ini­tial part of a full clin­i­cal ex­am­i­na­tion. There are var­i­ous types of med­ical ther­mome­ters, as well as sites used for mea­sure­ment, in­clud­ing: 1. In the rectum (rectal temperature) 2. In the mouth (oral temperature) 3. Under the arm (axillary temperature) 4. In the ear (tympanic temperature) 5. in the nose 6. In the vagina (vaginal temperature) 7. In the bladder 8. On the skin of the forehead over the temporal artery

    Tem­per­a­ture con­trol (ther­moreg­u­la­tion) is part of a home­o­sta­tic mech­a­nism that keeps the or­gan­ism at op­ti­mum op­er­at­ing tem­per­a­ture, as the tem­per­a­ture af­fects the rate of chem­i­cal re­ac­tions. In hu­mans, the av­er­age in­ter­nal tem­per­a­ture is 37.0 °C (98.6 °F), though it varies among in­di­vid­u­als. How­ever, no per­son al­ways has ex­actly the same tem­per­a­ture at every mo­ment of the day. Tem­per­a­tures cycle reg­u­larly up and down through the day, as con­trolled by the per­son's cir­ca­dian rhythm. The low­est tem­per­a­ture oc­curs about two hours be­fore the per­son nor­mally wakes up. Ad­di­tion­ally, tem­per­a­tures change ac­cord­ing to ac­tiv­i­ties and ex­ter­nal factors.[unreliable medical source?] In ad­di­tion to vary­ing through­out the day, nor­mal body tem­per­a­ture may also dif­fer as much as 0.5 °C (0.9 °F) from one day to the next, so that the high­est or low­est tem­per­a­tures on one day will not al­ways ex­actly match the...


    A tem­per­a­ture set­point is the level at which the body at­tempts to main­tain its tem­per­a­ture. When the set­point is raised, the re­sult is a fever. Most fevers are caused by in­fec­tious dis­ease and can be low­ered, if de­sired, with an­tipyreticmed­ica­tions. An early morn­ing tem­per­a­ture higher than 37.2 °C (99.0 °F) or a late af­ter­noon tem­per­a­ture higher than 37.7 °C (99.9 °F) is nor­mally con­sid­ered a fever, as­sum­ing that the tem­per­a­ture is el­e­vated due to a chang...


    Hy­per­ther­mia oc­curs when the body pro­duces or ab­sorbs more heat than it can dis­si­pate. It is usu­ally caused by pro­longed ex­po­sure to high tem­per­a­tures. The heat-reg­u­lat­ing mech­a­nisms of the body even­tu­ally be­come over­whelmed and un­able to deal ef­fec­tively with the heat, caus­ing the body tem­per­a­ture to climb un­con­trol­lably. Hy­per­ther­mia at or above about 40 °C (104 °F) is a life-threat­en­ing med­ical emer­gency that re­quires im­me­di­ate treat­ment. Com­m...


    In hy­pother­mia, body tem­per­a­ture drops below that re­quired for nor­mal me­tab­o­lism and bod­ily func­tions. In hu­mans, this is usu­ally due to ex­ces­sive ex­po­sure to cold air or water, but it can be de­lib­er­ately in­duced as a med­ical treat­ment. Symp­toms usu­ally ap­pear when the body's core tem­per­a­ture drops by 1–2 °C (1.8–3.6 °F) below nor­mal tem­per­a­ture.


    1. 44 °C (111.2 °F) or more – Almost certainly death will occur; however, people have been known to survive up to 46.5 °C (115.7 °F).[unreliable medical source?] 2. 43 °C (109.4 °F) – Normally death, or there may be serious brain damage, continuous convulsions and shock. Cardio-respiratory collapse will likely occur. 3. 42 °C (107.6 °F) – Subject may turn pale or remain flushed and red. They may become comatose, be in severe delirium, vomiting, and convulsions can occur. Blood pressure may be...


    1. 36.5–37.5 °C (97.7–99.5 °F) is a typically reported range for normal body temperature


    1. 36 °C (96.8 °F) – Feeling cold, mild to moderate shivering. Body temperature may drop this low during sleep. May be a normal body temperature. 2. 35 °C (95 °F) – (Hypothermiais less than 35 °C (95 °F)) – Intense shivering, numbness and bluish/grayness of the skin. There is the possibility of heart irritability. 3. 34 °C (93.2 °F) – Severe shivering, loss of movement of fingers, blueness and confusion. Some behavioural changes may take place. 4. 33 °C (91.4 °F) – Moderate to severe confusio...

    In the 19th cen­tury, most books quoted "blood heat" as 98 °F, until a study pub­lished the mean (but not the vari­ance) of a large sam­ple as 36.88 °C (98.38 °F). Sub­se­quently that mean was widely quoted as "37 °C or 98.4 °F"until ed­i­tors re­alised 37 °C is closer to 98.6 °F than 98.4 °F. Dic­tio­nar­ies and other sources that quoted these av­er­ages did add the word "about" to show that there is some vari­ance, but gen­er­ally did not state how wide the vari­ance is.

  4. Basal body temperature - Wikipedia
    • Overview
    • Hormonal causes of biphasic patterns
    • As a birth control method
    • Trying to conceive
    • As a diagnostic test
    • For estimating the timing of childbirth

    Basal body temperature is the lowest body temperature attained during rest. It is usually estimated by a temperature measurement immediately after awakening and before any physical activity has been undertaken. This will lead to a somewhat higher value than the true BBT. In women, ovulation causes a sustained increase of at least 0.2 °C in BBT. Monitoring BBTs is one way of estimating the day of ovulation. The tendency of a woman to have lower temperatures before ovulation, and higher...

    The higher levels of estrogen present during the pre-ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle lower BBTs. The higher levels of progesterone released by the corpus luteum after ovulation raise BBTs. After ovulation, the temperature will be raised by at least 0.2 °C, for at least 72 hours, compared to the previous six days. The rise in temperatures can most commonly be seen the day after ovulation, but this varies and BBTs can only be used to estimate ovulation within a three-day range. If ...

    Charting of basal body temperatures is used in some methods of fertility awareness, such as the sympto-thermal method, and may be used to determine the onset of post-ovulatory infertility. When BBT alone is used to avoid a pregnancy, it is sometimes called the Temperature Rhythm

    There is limited evidence about the effectiveness of fertility awareness family planning methods, some of which use basal body temperature as one component. About 24% of women who use any type of fertility awareness program become pregnant during the first year, compared to about

    Couples that are trying to conceive can use BBT to determine when the opportunity for a pregnancy during this cycle has passed.

    Infertility due to lack of ovulation is common. BBT charts can be used to identify when and whether ovulation is taking place. Regular menstrual cycles are often taken as evidence that a woman is ovulating normally, and irregular cycles is evidence she is not. However, many women

    Most pregnancy tests are not accurate until two weeks after ovulation. Knowing an estimated date of ovulation can prevent a woman from getting false negative results due to testing too early. Also, 18 consecutive days of elevated temperatures means a woman is almost certainly pre

    Calculating the expected due date for a pregnancy based upon the self-reported last menstrual period is less accurate than calculating it based upon either BBT or ultrasound.

    • 1930s
    • Unknown%
  5. Thermoregulation - Wikipedia
    • Overview
    • Classification of animals by thermal characteristics
    • Vertebrates
    • In plants
    • Behavioral temperature regulation
    • Variation in animals

    Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different. A thermoconforming organism, by contrast, simply adopts the surrounding temperature as its own body temperature, thus avoiding the need for internal thermoregulation. The internal thermoregulation process is one aspect of homeostasis: a state of dynamic stability in an organism's internal conditions, maintained far from thermal equilibriu

    Thermoregulation in organisms runs along a spectrum from endothermy to ectothermy. Endotherms create most of their heat via metabolic processes, and are colloquially referred to as warm-blooded. When the surrounding temperatures are cold, endotherms increase metabolic heat produc

    To cope with low temperatures, some fish have developed the ability to remain functional even when the water temperature is below freezing; some use natural antifreeze or antifreeze proteins to resist ice crystal formation in their tissues. Amphibians and reptiles cope with heat

    An endotherm is an animal that regulates its own body temperature, typically by keeping it at a constant level. To regulate body temperature, an organism may need to prevent heat gains in arid environments. Evaporation of water, either across respiratory surfaces or across the sk

    By numerous observations upon humans and other animals, John Hunter showed that the essential difference between the so-called warm-blooded and cold-blooded animals lies in observed constancy of the temperature of the former, and the observed variability of the temperature of the latter. Almost all birds and mammals have a high temperature almost constant and independent of that of the surrounding air (homeothermy). Almost all other animals display a variation of body temperature, dependent on t

    Thermogenesis occurs in the flowers of many plants in the family Araceae as well as in cycad cones. In addition, the sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) is able to thermoregulate itself, remaining on average 20 °C (36 °F) above air temperature while flowering. Heat is produced by breaking down the starch that was stored in their roots, which requires the consumption of oxygen at a rate approaching that of a flying hummingbird. One possible explanation for plant thermoregulation is to provide ...

    Animals other than humans regulate and maintain their body temperature with physiological adjustments and behavior. Desert lizards are ectotherms and so unable to metabolically control their temperature but can do this by altering their location. They may do this, in the morning only by raising their head from its burrow and then exposing their entire body. By basking in the sun, the lizard absorbs solar heat. It may also absorb heat by conduction from heated rocks that have stored radiant solar

    Previously, average oral temperature for healthy adults had been considered 37.0 °C (98.6 °F), while normal ranges are 36.1 to 37.8 °C (97.0 to 100.0 °F). In Poland and Russia, the temperature had been measured axillarily (under the arm). 36.6 °C (97.9 °F) was ...

    In humans, a diurnal variation has been observed dependent on the periods of rest and activity, lowest at 11 p.m. to 3 a.m. and peaking at 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. Monkeys also have a well-marked and regular diurnal variation of body temperature that follows periods of rest and activity

    During the follicular phase (which lasts from the first day of menstruation until the day of ovulation), the average basal body temperature in women ranges from 36.45 to 36.7 °C (97.61 to 98.06 °F). Within 24 hours of ovulation, women experience an elevation of 0.15–0.45 ...

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  7. Hypothermia - Wikipedia

    Body temperature is usually maintained near a constant level of 36.5–37.5 °C (97.7–99.5 °F) through thermoregulation. Efforts to increase body temperature involve shivering, increased voluntary activity, and putting on warmer clothing.

  8. Temperature - Wikipedia

    Temperature is a physical quantity that expresses hot and cold. It is the manifestation of thermal energy, present in all matter, which is the source of the occurrence of heat, a flow of energy, when a body is in contact with another that is colder.

    • Yes
    • K
  9. Black body - Wikipedia

    A grey body is one where α, ρ and τ are constant for all wavelengths. This term also is used to mean a body for which α is temperature- and wavelength-independent. A white body is one for which all incident radiation is reflected uniformly in all directions: τ = 0, α = 0, and ρ = 1. For a black body, τ = 0, α = 1, and ρ = 0. Planck ...

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