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      • From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For other uses, see Diarrhea (disambiguation). Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose, liquid, or watery bowel movements each day. It often lasts for a few days and can result in dehydration due to fluid loss.,can%20result%20in%20dehydration%20due%20to%20fluid%20loss.
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  2. Diarrhea - Wikipedia

    Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose, liquid, or watery bowel movements each day. It often lasts for a few days and can result in dehydration due to fluid loss. Signs of dehydration often begin with loss of the normal stretchiness of the skin and irritable behaviour.

    • Usually infection (viral, bacterial, parasitic)
    • Loose frequent bowel movements, dehydration
  3. Travelers' diarrhea - Wikipedia's_diarrhea

    Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is a stomach and intestinal infection. TD is defined as the passage of unformed stool (one or more by some definitions, three or more by others) while traveling. It may be accompanied by abdominal cramps, nausea, fever, and bloating. Occasionally bloody diarrhea may occur.

    • Travellers' diarrhoea, tourist diarrhea, traveler's dysentery
    • Unformed stool while traveling, fever, abdominal cramps
  4. Chronic diarrhea of infancy - Wikipedia

    Diarrhea is separated into three clinical categories; acute diarrhea may last multiple hours or days, acute bloody diarrhea, also known as dysentery, and finally, chronic or persistent diarrhea which lasts 2-4 weeks or more. There is normal growth with no evidence of malnutrition in the child experiencing persistent diarrhea.

    • Toddler's diarrhea
    • Pediatrics
  5. Dysentery - Wikipedia
    • Overview
    • Signs and symptoms
    • Mechanism
    • Diagnosis
    • Prevention
    • Treatment

    Dysentery is a type of gastroenteritis that results in diarrhea with blood. Other symptoms may include fever, abdominal pain, and a feeling of incomplete defecation. Complications may include dehydration. The cause of dysentery is usually the bacteria Shigella, in which case it is known as shigellosis, or the amoeba Entamoeba histolytica. Other causes may include certain chemicals, other bacteria, other protozoa, or parasitic worms. It may spread between people. Risk factors include contaminatio

    The most common form of dysentery is bacillary dysentery, which is typically a mild sickness, causing symptoms normally consisting of mild gut pains and frequent passage of stool or diarrhea. Symptoms normally present themselves after 1–3 days, and are usually no longer present after a week. The frequency of urges to defecate, the large volume of liquid feces ejected, and the presence of blood, mucus, or pus depends on the pathogen causing the disease. Temporary lactose intolerance can ...

    Dysentery results from bacterial, or parasitic infections. Viruses do not generally cause the disease. These pathogens typically reach the large intestine after entering orally, through ingestion of contaminated food or water, oral contact with contaminated objects or hands, and so on. Each specific pathogen has its own mechanism or pathogenesis, but in general, the result is damage to the intestinal linings, leading to the inflammatory immune responses. This can cause elevated physical temperat

    A diagnosis may be made by taking a history and doing a brief examination. Dysentery should not be confused with hematochezia, which is the passage of fresh blood through the anus, usually in or with stools.

    Efforts to prevent dysentery include hand washing and food safety measures while traveling in areas of high risk.

    Dysentery is managed by maintaining fluids using oral rehydration therapy. If this treatment cannot be adequately maintained due to vomiting or the profuseness of diarrhea, hospital admission may be required for intravenous fluid replacement. In ideal situations, no antimicrobial therapy should be administered until microbiological microscopy and culture studies have established the specific infection involved. When laboratory services are not available, it may be necessary to administer a combi

  6. Irritable bowel syndrome - Wikipedia

    IBS can be classified as diarrhea -predominant (IBS-D), constipation -predominant (IBS-C), with alternating stool pattern (IBS-A) or pain-predominant. In some individuals, IBS may have an acute onset and develop after an infectious illness characterized by two or more of: fever, vomiting, diarrhea, or positive stool culture.

  7. Gastroenteritis - Wikipedia

    Gastroenteritis is defined as vomiting or diarrhea due to inflammation of the small or large bowel, often due to infection. The changes in the small bowel are typically noninflammatory, while the ones in the large bowel are inflammatory.

  8. Acute diarrhea - WikEM
    • Background
    • Clinical Features
    • Evaluation
    • Supportive Therapies
    • Antibiotics For Infectious Diarrhea
    • Disposition
    • See Also
    Almost all true diarrheal emergencies are of noninfectious origin
    85% of diarrhea is infectious in etiology


    1. Possible food poisoning? 1.1. Symptoms occur within 6hr 2. Does it resolve (osmotic) or persist (secretory) with fasting? 3. Are the stools of smaller volume (large intestine) or larger volume (small intestine) 4. Fever or abdominal pain? (diverticulitis, gastroenteritis, IBD) 5. Bloody or melenic? 6. Tenesmus? (shigella) 7. Malodorous? (giardia) 8. Recent travel? (Traveler's Diarrhea) 9. Recent antibiotics? (C. diff) 10. HIV/immunocompromised/high risk behaviors? 11. Heat intolerance and...

    Physical Exam

    1. Thyroidmasses 2. Oral ulcers, erythema nodosum, episcleritis, anal fissure (IBD) 3. Reactive arthritis (Arthritis, conjunctivitis, urethritis) 3.1. Suggests infection with salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, or yersinia 4. Rectal exam for fecal impaction 5. Guaiac 6. Abdominal pain out of proportion to exam (mesenteric ischemia)

    Indications for Workup

    Indicated for: 1. Profuse watery diarrhea with signs of hypovolemia 2. Severe abdominal pain 3. Fever>38.5 (101.3) (suggests infection with invasive bacteria) 4. Symptoms >2-3d 5. Blood or pus in stool (E. coli0157:H7) 6. Recent hospitalization or antibiotic use 7. Elderly or immunocompromised 8. Systemic illness with diarrhea (esp if pregnant (listeria))

    1. Fluids should contain sugar, salt, and water


    1. Lactobacilli and bifidobacterium 2. 25% decrease in average duration of diarrhea (good evidence)

    Diet Modification

    1. Eat: BRAT(Bananas, Rice, Applesauce and Toast) diet (no evidence) 2. Avoid: Caffeine(increased gastric motility), raw fruit (increased osmotic diarrhea), lactose

    Most cases of diarrhea are NOT from infectious causes. If the patient suspects that there is blood in the stool but there is no abdominal pain, and no fever, the cause is unlikely to be from a bact...
    The majority of patients, even with bacterial positive cultures, will recover from diarrhea illness without antibiotic therapy
    Hospitalization should be individualized based on the patient's ability to tolerate oral hydration, have adequate social support, and also based on complicating comorbidities.
    Majority of patients can be treated as an outpatient
    Observation or admission is required for those with severe disease, and significant dehydration with other end organ complications
  9. Bile acid malabsorption - Wikipedia

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Bile acid malabsorption (BAM), known also as bile acid diarrhea, is a cause of several gut-related problems, the main one being chronic diarrhea. It has also been called bile acid-induced diarrhea, cholerheic or choleretic enteropathy and bile salt malabsorption.

  10. Diarrhea: 15 Common Causes and How To Treat It

    When you have diarrhea, your bowel movements (or stools) are loose and watery. It’s common and usually not serious. Many people get diarrhea a few times a year. It normally lasts 2 to 3 days.

  11. Diarrhea - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
    • Overview
    • Symptoms
    • Causes
    • Complications
    • Prevention

    Diarrhea β€” loose, watery and possibly more-frequent bowel movements β€” is a common problem.Luckily, diarrhea is usually short-lived, lasting no more than a few days. But, when diarrhea lasts for weeks, it usually indicates that's there's another problem. If you have diarrhea for weeks or longer, you may have a condition such as irritable bowel disorder, or a more serious disorder, such as a persistent infection or inflammatory bowel disease.

    Signs and symptoms associated with diarrhea may include: 1. Loose, watery stools 2. Abdominal cramps 3. Abdominal pain 4. Fever 5. Blood in the stool 6. Mucus in the stool 7. Bloating 8. Nausea 9. Urgent need to have a bowel movement

    A number of diseases and conditions can cause diarrhea, including 1. Viruses. Viruses that can cause diarrhea include Norwalk virus, cytomegalovirus and viral hepatitis. Rotavirus is a common cause of acute childhood diarrhea. 2. Bacteria and parasites. Contaminated food or water can transmit bacteria and parasites to your body. When traveling in developing countries, diarrhea caused by bacteria and parasites is often called traveler's diarrhea. Clostridium difficile is another type of bacter...

    Diarrhea can cause dehydration, which can be life-threatening if untreated. Dehydration is particularly dangerous in children, older adults and those with weakened immune systems.If you have signs of serious dehydration, seek medical help.

    Wash your hands to prevent the spread of viral diarrhea. To ensure adequate hand-washing: 1. Wash frequently. Wash your hands before and after preparing food. Wash your hands after handling uncooked meat, using the toilet, changing diapers, sneezing, coughing and blowing your nose. 2. Lather with soap for at least 20 seconds. After putting soap on your hands, rub your hands together for at least 20 seconds. This is about as long as it takes to sing \\"Happy Birthday\\" twice through. 3. Use hand...