Escherichia coli (/ ˌ ɛ ʃ ə ˈ r ɪ k i ə ˈ k oʊ l aɪ /), also known as E. coli (/ ˌ iː ˈ k oʊ l aɪ /), is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Escherichia coli (Latin pronunciation: [eskeˈrikja ˈkoli] Anglicized to / ˌɛʃəˈrɪkiə ˈkoʊlaɪ /; commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
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Escherichia coli From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Escherichia coli or E. coli is a bacterium that can be found in human intestines. Scientists have studied E. coli a lot, and know more about how E. coli cells work than any other organism.
- Signs and symptoms
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a serotype of the bacteria species Escherichia coli and is one of the Shiga-like toxin–producing types of E. coli. It is a cause of disease, typically foodborne illness, through consumption of contaminated and raw food, including raw milk and undercooked ground beef. Infection with this type of pathogenic bacteria may lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea, and to kidney failure; these have been reported to cause the deaths of children younger than five years of age, of...
E. coli O157:H7 infection often causes severe, acute hemorrhagic diarrhea and abdominal cramps. Usually little or no fever is present, and the illness resolves in 5 to 10 days. It can also sometimes be asymptomatic. In some people, particularly children under five years of age, persons whose immunologies are otherwise compromised, and the elderly, the infection can cause hemolytic uremic syndrome, in which the red blood cells are destroyed and the kidneys fail. About 2–7% of infections ...
Like the other strains of the species, O157:H7 is gram-negative and oxidase-negative. Unlike many other strains, it does not ferment sorbitol, which provides a basis for clinical laboratory differentiation of the strain. Strains of E. coli that express Shiga and Shiga-like toxins gained that ability via infection with a prophage containing the structural gene coding for the toxin, and nonproducing strains may become infected and produce shiga-like toxins after incubation with shiga toxin positiv
Infection with E. coli O157:H7 can come from ingestion of contaminated food or water, or oral contact with contaminated surfaces. Examples of this can be undercooked ground beef but also leafy vegetables and raw milk. Fields often get contaminated with the bacterium through irrigation processes or contaminated water naturally entering the soil. It is highly virulent, with a low infectious dose: an inoculation of fewer than 10 to 100 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 is sufficient to cause infection, compar
A stool culture can detect the bacterium, although it is not a routine test and so must be specifically requested. The sample is cultured on sorbitol-MacConkey agar, or the variant cefixime potassium tellurite sorbitol-MacConkey agar. On SMAC agar, O157:H7 colonies appear clear due to their inability to ferment sorbitol, while the colonies of the usual sorbitol-fermenting serotypes of E. coli appear red. Sorbitol nonfermenting colonies are tested for the somatic O157 antigen before being confirm
E. coli O157:H7 infection is nationally reportable disease in the US, Great Britain, and Germany, and most US states. It is also reportable in most states of Australia including Queensland.
- Signs and symptoms
- Prevention and treatment
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is a type of Escherichia coli and one of the leading bacterial causes of diarrhea in the developing world, as well as the most common cause of travelers' diarrhea. Insufficient data exist, but conservative estimates suggest that each year, about 157,000 deaths occur, mostly in children, from ETEC. A number of pathogenic isolates are termed ETEC, but the main hallmarks of this type of bacteria are expression of one or more enterotoxins and presence of fimbriae use
Infection with ETEC can cause profuse, watery diarrhea with no blood or leukocytes and abdominal cramping. Fever, nausea with or without vomiting, chills, loss of appetite, headache, muscle aches and bloating can also occur, but are less common.
Enterotoxins produced by ETEC include heat-labile enterotoxin and heat-stable enterotoxin.
To date, no licensed vaccines specifically target ETEC, though several are in various stages of development. Studies indicate that protective immunity to ETEC develops after natural or experimental infection, suggesting that vaccine-induced ETEC immunity should be feasible and could be an effective preventive strategy. Prevention through vaccination is a critical part of the strategy to reduce the incidence and severity of diarrheal disease due to ETEC, particularly among children in low-resourc
- Symptoms and Causes
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli are a pathotype of Escherichia coli which cause acute and chronic diarrhea in both the developed and developing world. They may also cause urinary tract infections. EAEC are defined by their "stacked-brick" pattern of adhesion to the human laryngeal epithelial cell line HEp-2. The pathogenesis of EAEC involves the aggregation of and adherence of the bacteria to the intestinal mucosa, where they elaborate enterotoxins and cytotoxins that damage host cells and in
Diarrhea is still an important disease burden worldwide. It causes considerable childhood mortality in the developing world and is correlated with morbidity and substation health care costs in industrialized countries. The cause of infectious diarrhea is diarrheagenic Escheriachia coli group. Subgroups of diarrheagenic Escheriachia coli are the following: enteroinvasive E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic E.coli, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli and Enteroaggregative E. coli. E. coli
Enteroaggregative Escheichia coli is a type of strain from E.coli. E.coli causes intestinal infections, some intestinal infections include diarrhea, fever and abdominal pain. Most severe cases can lead to bloody diarrhea, dehydration or even kidney failure. People with weakened immune systems, young children, older adults and pregnant women are at increased risks for developing these complications. Symptoms of intestinal infection usually begin between 8 and 52 hours after you have been infected
Antibiotics is a type of medicine that is used to destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Studies have suggested that fluoroquinolone, especially ciprofloxacin, may be the most effective antibiotic when treating Enteroaggregative E.coli infections, patients treated with ciprofloxacin had significant reductions in duration of diarrhea. Unfortunately resistance toward ciprofloxacin in Enteroaggregative E.coli strains has been reported in several studies. The illness caused by the strain o
EAEC is transmitted through the fecal-oral route and primarily contaminated by food and water. EAEC has been associated with many symptoms such as diarrhea in some individuals and intestinal colonization in others. Because many strains of EAEC have been identified, it is difficult to identify the mechanism of its pathogenesis. Most candidate virulence genes are not always connected with disease. The model of EAEC pathogenesis comprises three stages: Stage 1 is the attachment of the intestinal mu
E. coli has been involved as agents of diarrheal disease since 1920. Enteroaggregative Escheichia coli was first found in 1987, in a child in Lima, Peru. Since 1987, Enteroaggregative Escheichia coli has been recognized as agents of diarrhea in industrialized and developing countries. Enteroaggregative Escheichia coli is most commonly found in developing countries due to less developed industrial base and low human development compared to other countries. India, Jamaica and Mexico are the most c
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