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  1. The geographic coordinate system ( GCS) is a spherical or ellipsoidal coordinate system for measuring and communicating positions directly on the Earth as latitude and longitude. It is the simplest, oldest and most widely used of the various of spatial reference systems that are in use, and forms the basis for most others.

  2. For it, the Earth is cut up into 180 circles, from the Equator at 0°. The poles are at 90°, the North Pole is at 90° N (orth), the South Pole is at 90° S (outh). Places with the same latitude are on a circle, around the Earth. The other concept is called longitude (Long, or the Greek symbol "lambda", ), sometimes referred to as "meridian".

  3. Geocentric coordinate system, a three-dimensional cartesian coordinate system that models the earth as an object, and are most commonly used for modeling the orbits of Satellites, including the Global Positioning System and other Satellite navigation systems. See also Absolute angular momentum Alphanumeric grid Axes conventions in engineering

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    What is a geographical coordinate system?

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  5. Geographic coordinate system * Geographic coordinate conversion C C-squares Cassini Grid D Decimal degrees Denso mapcode Discrete global grid E ED50 G Gaussian grid Geography (Ptolemy) Geohash Geomagnetic latitude German Naval Grid System Global Area Reference System Global Navigation Grid Code Grid (spatial index) Projected coordinate system H

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    From printed maps

    Looking at a printed map or atlas, either those you own or at a library.

    For the US

    1. The United States Geological Survey's public domain Geographical Names Information Service database serviceis extremely extensive, although riddled with errors. It also provides linkouts to topozone and terraserver so that you can tweak the results to your liking. Most of these coordinates use 2. US Census TIGER 3. US Census Boundary and Annexation Survey 4. Find Longitude and Latitude coordinates by US Zip Code 5. Search engine for GPS coordinates of latitude and longitude of the United S...

    For other regions

    1. For placenames in Antarctica, try Geographic Names Information System, Antarctica 2. For placenames in Australia, try Geoscience Australia Place Name Search 3. For placenames in Canada, try the Canadian Geographical Names Data Base (CGNDB) Querying Canadian Geographical Names 4. For placenames in the UK, Streetmap.co.uk is very useful for clicking on a precise point to show the coordinates. Near the foot of a page displaying a map is a link "Click here to convert/measure coordinates" which...

    Using a GPS receiverwith a clear view of the sky.
    Looking for "Waypoint" files on sites for GPS users, e.g.
    Googling for a city name together with "latitude", "longitude" will usually yield a plethora of useful results (example)
  6. A coordinate system conversion is a conversion from one coordinate system to another, with both coordinate systems based on the same geodetic datum. Common conversion tasks include conversion between geodetic and earth-centered, earth-fixed ( ECEF) coordinates and conversion from one type of map projection to another.

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