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    • Can cholera kill you?

      • Cholera is an infectious disease that causes severe watery diarrhea, which can lead to dehydration and even death if untreated. It is caused by eating food or drinking water contaminated with a bacterium called Vibrio cholerae.
      www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/cholera-faq#:~:text=Cholera%20is%20an%20infectious%20disease%20that%20causes%20severe,water%20contaminated%20with%20a%20bacterium%20called%20Vibrio%20cholerae.
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  2. How Does Cholera Kill? | Live Science

    www.livescience.com/10212-cholera-kill.html

    Oct 22, 2010 · Haiti's president Rene Preval confirmed today (Oct. 22) that at least 142 people have died as a result of a cholera outbreak north of Port-au-Prince, Haiti's capital. The nasty bacterium...

  3. Cholera - World Health Organization

    www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cholera
    • Symptoms
    • History
    • Vibrio cholerae Strains
    • Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Disease Burden
    • Prevention and Control
    • Surveillance
    • Water and Sanitation Interventions
    • Treatment
    • Hygiene Promotion and Social Mobilisation
    • Oral Cholera Vaccines
    • Who Response
    • References

    Cholera is an extremely virulent disease that can cause severe acute watery diarrhoea. It takes between 12 hours and 5 days for a person to show symptoms after ingesting contaminated food or water (2). Cholera affects both children and adults and can kill within hours if untreated. Most people infected with V. cholerae do not develop any symptoms, although the bacteria are present in their faeces for 1-10 days after infection and are shed back into the environment, potentially infecting other...

    During the 19th century, cholera spread across the world from its original reservoir in the Ganges delta in India. Six subsequent pandemics killed millions of people across all continents. The current (seventh) pandemic started in South Asia in 1961, and reached Africa in 1971 and the Americas in 1991. Cholera is now endemic in many countries.

    There are many serogroups of V. cholerae, but only two – O1 and O139 – cause outbreaks. V. cholerae O1 has caused all recent outbreaks. V. cholerae O139 – first identified in Bangladesh in 1992 – caused outbreaks in the past, but recently has only been identified in sporadic cases. It has never been identified outside Asia. There is no difference in the illness caused by the two serogroups.

    Cholera can be endemic or epidemic. A cholera-endemic area is an area where confirmed cholera cases were detected during the last 3 years with evidence of local transmission (meaning the cases are not imported from elsewhere). A cholera outbreak/epidemic can occur in both endemic countries and in countries where cholera does not regularly occur.In cholera endemic countries an outbreak can be seasonal or sporadic and represents a greater than expected number of cases. In a country where choler...

    A multifaceted approach is key to control cholera, and to reduce deaths. A combination of surveillance, water, sanitation and hygiene, social mobilisation, treatment, and oral cholera vaccines are used.

    Cholera surveillance should be part of an integrated disease surveillance system that includes feedback at the local level and information-sharing at the global level.Cholera cases are detected based on clinical suspicion in patients who present with severe acute watery diarrhoea. The suspicion is then confirmed by identifying V. cholerae in stool samples from affected patients. Detection can be facilitated using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), where one or more positive samples triggers a cho...

    The long-term solution for cholera control lies in economic development and universal access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation. Actions targeting environmental conditions include the iimplementation of adapted long-term sustainable WASH solutions to ensure use of safe water, basic sanitation and good hygiene practices in cholera hotspots. In addition to cholera, such interventions prevent a wide range of other water-borne illnesses, as well as contributing to achieving goals rela...

    Cholera is an easily treatable disease. The majority of people can be treated successfully through prompt administration of oral rehydration solution (ORS). The WHO/UNICEF ORS standard sachet is dissolved in 1 litre (L) of clean water. Adult patients may require up to 6 L of ORS to treat moderate dehydration on the first day. Severely dehydrated patients are at risk of shock and require the rapid administration of intravenous fluids. These patients are also given appropriate antibiotics to di...

    Health education campaigns, adapted to local culture and beliefs, should promote the adoption of appropriate hygiene practices such as hand-washing with soap, safe preparation and storage of food and safe disposal of the faeces of children. Funeral practices for individuals who die from cholera must be adapted to prevent infection among attendees.Further, awareness campaigns should be organised during outbreaks, and information should be provided to the community about the potential risks and...

    Currently there are three WHO pre-qualified oral cholera vaccines (OCV): Dukoral®, Shanchol™, and Euvichol-Plus®. All three vaccines require two doses for full protection. Dukoral® is administered with a buffer solution that, for adults, requires 150 ml of clean water. Dukoral can be given to all individuals over the age of 2 years. There must be a minimum of 7 days, and no more than 6 weeks, delay between each dose. Children aged 2 -5 require a third dose. Dukoral® is mainly used for travell...

    In 2014 the Global Task Force on Cholera Control (GTFCC), with its Secretariat based at WHO, was revitalised. The GTFCC is a network of more than 50 partners active in cholera control globally, including academic institutions, non-governmental organisations and United Nations agencies. Through the GTFCC and with support from donors, WHO works to: 1. promote the design and implementation of global strategies to contribute to capacity development for cholera prevention and control globally; 2....

    (1) Updated global burden of cholera in endemic countries.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4455997/ Ali M, Nelson AR, Lopez AL, Sack D. (2015). PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9(6): e0003832. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003832. (2) The incubation period of cholera: a systematic review.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23201968Azman AS, Rudolph KE, Cummings DA, Lessler J. J Infect. 2013;66(5):432-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2012.11.013. PubMed PMID: 23201968; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3677557.(3) Cho...

  4. General Information | Cholera | CDC

    www.cdc.gov/cholera/general

    Cholera is an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the toxigenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 or O139. An estimated 2.9 million cases and 95,000 deaths occur each year around the world. The infection is often mild or without symptoms, but can sometimes be severe. Approximately one in 10 (10%) infected persons will have severe disease characterized by profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps.

  5. Vibrio cholerae: How it spreads, kills, and can be eradicated ...

    www.independent.co.uk/news/world/vibrio-cholerae...

    The microbe, Vibrio cholerae, produces a toxin which causes diarrhoea, massive dehydration, vomiting and eventual death if left untreated. The bacteria are passed on in contaminated water or food,...

    • Steve Connor
  6. Cholera - Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic

    www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cholera/...
    • Diagnosis
    • Treatment
    • Preparing For Your Appointment

    Although signs and symptoms of severe cholera may be unmistakable in endemic areas, the only way to confirm a diagnosis is to identify the bacteria in a stool sample.Rapid cholera dipstick tests are now available, enabling health care providers in remote areas to confirm diagnosis of cholera earlier. Quicker confirmation helps to decrease death rates at the start of cholera outbreaks and leads to earlier public health interventions for outbreak control.

    Cholera requires immediate treatment because the disease can cause death within hours. 1. Rehydration. The goal is to replace lost fluids and electrolytes using a simple rehydration solution, oral rehydration salts (ORS). The ORS solution is available as a powder that can be reconstituted in boiled or bottled water. Without rehydration, approximately half the people with cholera die. With treatment, the number of fatalities drops to less than 1 percent. 2. Intravenous fluids. During a cholera...

    Seek immediate medical care if you develop severe diarrhea or vomiting and are in or have very recently returned from a country where cholera occurs.If you believe you may have been exposed to cholera, but your symptoms are not severe, call your family doctor. Be sure to tell him or her that you suspect your illness may be cholera.Here's some information to help you get ready and what to expect from your doctor.

  7. Five Basic Cholera Prevention Steps | Cholera | CDC

    www.cdc.gov/cholera/preventionsteps.html

    All people (visitors or residents) in areas where cholera is occurring or has occurred should be aware of the basic cholera facts and follow these five basic cholera prevention steps to protect themselves and their family 1, 2. The risk for cholera is very low for people visiting areas with epidemic cholera. When these simple precautions are ...

  8. Cholera: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention

    www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/cholera-faq

    Cholera is an infectious disease that causes severe watery diarrhea, which can lead to dehydration and even death if untreated. It is caused by eating food or drinking water contaminated with a...

    • Mary Anne Dunkin
    • 1 min
  9. Cholera: Causes, Symptoms & Diagnosis

    www.healthline.com/health/cholera

    Jul 08, 2017 · Cholera is caused by bacteria called Vibrio cholerae. The disease’s deadly effects are the result of a strong toxin known as CTX that is produced by these bacteria in your small intestine. CTX...

  10. Cholera - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholera

    An untreated person with cholera may produce 10 to 20 litres (3 to 5 US gal) of diarrhea a day. Severe cholera, without treatment, kills about half of affected individuals. If the severe diarrhea is not treated, it can result in life-threatening dehydration and electrolyte imbalances.

  11. Cholera - HISTORY

    www.history.com/topics/inventions/history-of-cholera

    These symptoms can cause dehydration, septic shock and even death within a matter of just a few hours. People who contract non-01 or non-1039 V. cholerae can also acquire a diarrheal disease, but...

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