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Natural gas (also called fossil gas; sometimes just gas) is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Natural gas is a mixture of gases. It consists mainly of hydrocarbons. The main component is methane. Natural gas is often found in the ground, either alone or together with petroleum. Landfills and natural processes produce a little methane. Usually it is transported to users in a pipeline. Most natural gas is burnt as a fuel to produce energy.
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Natural gas has far more volume than oil to transport, and most gas is transported by pipelines. There is a natural gas pipeline network in the former Soviet Union, Europe and North America. Natural gas is less dense, even at higher pressures.
- Types of raw-natural-gas wells
- Description of a natural-gas processing plant
Natural-gas processing is a range of industrial processes designed to purify raw natural gas by removing impurities, contaminants and higher molecular mass hydrocarbons to produce what is known as pipeline quality dry natural gas. Natural-gas processing begins at the well head. The composition of the raw natural gas extracted from producing wells depends on the type, depth, and location of the underground deposit and the geology of the area. Oil and natural gas are often found together in the sa
Raw natural gas comes primarily from any one of three types of wells: crude oil wells, gas wells, and condensate wells. Natural gas that comes from crude oil wells is typically called associated gas. This gas can have existed as a gas cap above the crude oil in the underground reservoir or could have been dissolved in the crude oil, coming out of solution as the pressure is reduced during production. Natural gas that comes from gas wells and condensate wells, in which there is little or no crude
There are a variety of ways in which to configure the various unit processes used in the treatment of raw natural gas. The block flow diagram below is a generalized, typical configuration for the processing of raw natural gas from non-associated gas wells. It shows how raw natural gas is processed into sales gas piped to the end user markets. It also shows how processing of the raw natural gas yields these byproducts
Natural gas consumption patterns, across nations, vary based on access. Countries with large reserves tend to handle the raw-material natural gas more generously, while countries with scarce or lacking resources tend to be more economical. Despite the considerable findings, the predicted availability of the natural-gas reserves has hardly changed.
A natural gas vehicle (NGV) is also an alternative fuel vehicle that uses compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG).Natural gas vehicles should not be confused with autogas vehicles powered by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), mainly propane, which is a fuel with a fundamentally different composition.
Porém, não deve ser confundida com gasolina, que em algumas partes do planeta, como os Estados Unidos, o termo é abreviado para "gas".  Composição. A composição do gás natural pode variar muito, dependendo de fatores relativos ao reservatório, processo de produção, condicionamento, processamento e transporte.
- Inodoro, Poder calorífico superior a 9400kcal/m3, Limite de inflamabilidade: 5-15% em volume, Temperatura de ignição espontânea: 540ºC, Velocidade de chama: 35 a 50 cm/s, Temperatura de chama: 1.945ºC com ar e 2.810ºC com oxigênio, Ponto de ebulição: -162°C, Ponto de Fulgor: – 189°C
- 0,766 kg/m3
- History of regulation
- Natural Gas Act of 1938
- History of FPC and FERC
- Amendments to 1938 Act
The Natural Gas Act of 1938 was the first occurrence of the United States federal government regulating the natural gas industry. It was focused on regulating the rates charged by interstate natural gas transmission companies. In the years prior to the passage of the Act, concern arose about the monopolistic tendencies of the transmission companies and the fact that they were charging higher than competitive prices. The passage of the Act gave the Federal Power Commission control over the regula
Regulation in the natural gas market has been in place since the very beginnings of the industry. Originally in the mid-1800s, natural gas was manufactured out of coal, and delivered locally in the same area in which it was produced. Local governments saw the monopolistic tendencies of the market and began to enforce regulations. It was decided that there would be one distribution network but the rates that could be charged would be regulated by the local governments. In the 1900s, natural gas w
In 1938, the United States Congress passed the Natural Gas Act in order to take control of interstate natural gas transmission. This was the first time the federal government became involved in regulating rates of interstate transmission. The act gave the Federal Power Commission, a government agency, jurisdiction over regulation. It was the job of the FPC to regulate the rates that transmission companies charged. The act required that companies had to obtain a "certificate of public convenience
In 1920, the FPC was established by congress to coordinate hydroelectric projects under federal control. Early on, the FPC was under joint administration of the Secretary of War, Interior, and Agriculture while the FPC only had an Executive Secretary. All of their other personnel was borrowed from these other departments. This mixture of leadership often resulted in conflicting mandates and made it difficult to design a consistent energy policy. To resolve this, in 1928 Congress voted the give t
The Natural Gas Act of 1938 had an enormous impact on the future of not only the interstate natural gas market, but the U.S. energy policy and regulation. The natural gas industry has undergone tremendous change since 1938, and pipeline companies no longer function as resellers of gas to local distribution companies, the ideas behind the act still impact natural gas regulation to this day. Concern about market power continues to be a key driver of natural gas regulation and monitoring of the mar
Chronology of amendments to the Natural Gas Act of 1938.
- Domestic consumption
Natural gas was the Canada's third largest source of energy production in 2018, representing 22.3% of all energy produced from fuels in the country. By contrast, the share of fuel-based energy production from natural gas in 2013 was 17.0%, indicating a growth rate of approximately 1.06% per year.
As of 2017, Canada's gas reserves were estimated 30.8 trillion cubic metres, 72% of which is from tight gas formations in Alberta and British Columbia.
As of 2017, Canada was the fifth largest producer of natural gas in the world with a total of 473 million cubic metres per day. in 2017.
Across Canada, interprovincial pipelines have the capacity to carry over 1.3 billion cubic metres per day of gas and even more within the boundaries of the individual provinces.
In 2016 natural gas was used to provide 35% of all energy in Canada, double the amount supplied by electricity. Electricity generated by natural gas was 8.5% of the nations total. Natural gas is used to supply 50% of space heating, and 65% of water heating in homes, similarly 80%
In Canada there are approximately 188,525 people residing in 265 remote communities with a combined total annual electrical usage of 1,850 GW. The majority of these communities rely on diesel with a total annual fuel consumption of approximately 289 million L. Today, two of Canad
A large portion of Canada's gas is exported to the United States; in 2006, 9.9 billion cubic feet per day. In 2018, Canada's annual net exports of natural gas totaled 57.5 billion cubic meters.
Natural gas in Israel is a primary energy source in Israel, mainly utilized for electricity production and to lesser degree in industry.Israel began producing natural gas from its own offshore gas fields in 2004.
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