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  1. Oral rehydration therapy - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oral_rehydration_therapy

    Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is a type of fluid replacement used to prevent and treat dehydration, especially that due to diarrhea. It involves drinking water with modest amounts of sugar and salts, specifically sodium and potassium. Oral rehydration therapy can also be given by a nasogastric tube.

    • oral rehydration solution (ORS), oral rehydration salts (ORS), glucose-salt solution
    • D005440
  2. Oral rehydration therapy - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ...

    simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oral_rehydration_therapy

    Oral rehydration therapy is a treatment for dehydration: the sick person drinks water mixed with sugar and salt. They don't stop eating food. There is a mixture that is used for severe dehydration: This mixture also includes zinc. Those who take care of the sick person are taught how they can see it if the dehydration gets worse.

  3. Management of dehydration - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rehydration_therapy

    The approximate amount of oral rehydration solution (ORS) to be given over four hours can be obtained by multiplying 75 milliliters of solution by the child’s weight in kilograms. For example, a child who weighs 15 kilograms should be given approximately 1,125 ml of ORS over four hours.

  4. Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is a type of fluid replacement used to prevent and treat dehydration, especially that due to diarrhea. It involves drinking water with modest amounts of sugar and salts, specifically sodium and potassium. Oral rehydration therapy can also be given by a nasogastric tube.

  5. Fluid replacement - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intravenous_fluid_rehydration

    Fluid replacement or fluid resuscitation is the medical practice of replenishing bodily fluid lost through sweating, bleeding, fluid shifts or other pathologic processes. . Fluids can be replaced with oral rehydration therapy (drinking), intravenous therapy, rectally such as with a Murphy drip, or by hypodermoclysis, the direct injection of fluid into the subcutaneous tis

    • Fluid resuscitation
  6. David Nalin - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Nalin

    David R. Nalin (born April 21, 1941) is an American physiologist, and Pollin Prize for Pediatric Research and Prince Mahidol Award, a.k.a. Mahidol Medal winner. Nalin had the key insight that oral rehydration therapy (ORT) would work if the volume of solution patients drank matched the volume of their fluid losses, and that this would drastically reduce or completely replace the only current ...

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  8. Gastroenteritis - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gastroenteritis

    The oral cholera vaccine has been found to be 50–60% effective over 2 years. Management. Gastroenteritis is usually an acute and self-limiting disease that does not require medication. The preferred treatment in those with mild to moderate dehydration is oral rehydration therapy (ORT).

  9. Cholera - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholera

    In most cases, cholera can be successfully treated with oral rehydration therapy (ORT), which is highly effective, safe, and simple to administer. Rice-based solutions are preferred to glucose-based ones due to greater efficiency. In severe cases with significant dehydration, intravenous rehydration may be necessary.

    • Summary
    • Mechanism of action
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    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Oral rehydration therapy, (also called ORT, oral rehydration salts or solutions (ORS), or oral electrolyte), is a simple, cheap, and effective treatment for diarrhea-related dehydration, caused by e.g. cholera. It consists of a solution of salts and other substances such as glucose, sucrose, citrates or molasses, which is administered orally. It is used around the world, but is most important in the Third World, where it saves millions of children from diarrheastill their leading cause of death. History ORT was developed in the late 1960s by researchers in India and International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research in Bangladesh (then East Pakistan), for the treatment of cholera. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 provoked a public health emergency in the refugee camps set up to house those fleeing the violence. With cholera spreading rapidly and death rates rising, the head of a medical centre in one of the camps instructed his staff to distribute Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS). In the refugee camps where ORS was being used the death rate was only 3%, compared to 2030% in those camps using only intravenous fluid therapy.[citation needed] In 2002, Drs. Norbert Hirschhorn, Dilip Mahalanabis, David R. Nalin, and Nathaniel F. Pierce were awarded the first Pollin Prize for Pediatric Research, in recognition of their work in developing ORT. Between 1980 and 2000, ORT decreased the number of children under five dying of diarrhea from 4.6 million worldwide to 1.8 milliona 60% reduction. According to The Lancet (1978), ORT is \\"potentially the most important medical discovery of the 20th century\\". Today, the total production is around 500 million ORS sachets per year, with the children's rights agency UNICEF distributing them to children in around 60 developing countries. ORS represents a cheap and effective way of reducing the millions of deaths caused each year by diarrhea. Physiology Oral rehydration therapy is widely considered to be the best method for combating the dehydration caused by diarrhea and/or vomiting. Various diseases cause damage to the intestine, allowing water to flow from the blood into the intestine, depleting the body of both fluid and electrolytes. This may be

    In the human body, water is absorbed and secreted passively; it follows the movement of salts, based on a principle called osmosis. So, in many cases, diarrhea is caused by intestine cells secreting salts (primarily sodium) and water following passively along. Simply drinking water is ineffective for 2 reasons: (1) the large intestine is usually secreting instead of absorbing water, and (2) electrolyte losses also need compensating. As such, the standard treatment is to restore fluids intravenously with water and salts. This requires trained personnel and materials which are not sufficiently available in the Third World. However, it was discovered that the body can absorb a simple solution containing both sugar and salt. The dry ingredients can be mixed and packaged, and then the solution can be prepared and delivered by people with minimal training. One diarrhea mechanism (like in cholera, which is a very dangerous form of profuse diarrhea), is an enterotoxin interfering with enterocyte cAMP and G-proteins. However, water can still be absorbed by cAMP-indepentent mechanisms, like the SGLT-transporter (sodium and glucose transporter, of which 2 types exist). This is achieved by combining salts and glucose. Oral rehydration can be accomplished by drinking frequent small amounts of an oral rehydration salt solution. It is important to rehydrate with solutions that contain electrolytes, especially sodium and potassium, so that electrolyte disturbances may be avoided. Sugar is important to improve absorption of electrolytes and water, but if too much is present in ORS solutions, diarrhea can be worsened. Oral rehydration does not stop diarrhea, but keeps the body hydrated and healthy until the diarrhea passes. Recipe There are several commercially available products but an inexpensive home-made solution consists of 8 level teaspoons of sugar and 1 level teaspoon of table salt mixed in 1 liter of water. A half cup of orange juice or half of a mashed banana can be added to each liter both to add potassium and to improve taste. If commercial solutions are used, true rehydration solutions should be used and sports drinks should be avoided (especially in younger children) as these solutions contain too much sugar and not enough electrolytes. One standard remedy is the WHO/UNICEF glucose-based Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) solution. WHO/UNICEF ORS solution contains

    A half cup of orange juice or half of a mashed banana can be added to each liter to add potassium and improve taste.

    If commercial solutions are used, true rehydration solutions should be used and sports drinks should be avoided (especially in younger children) as these solutions contain too much sugar and not enough electrolytes.

    The amount of rehydration that is needed depends on the size of the individual and the degree of dehydration. Rehydration is generally adequate when the person no longer feels thirsty and has a normal urine output. A rough guide to the amount of ORS solution needed in the first 4-6 hours of treatment for a mildly dehydrated person is: Technique Adults and children with dehydration who are not vomiting can be allowed to drink these solutions in addition to their normal diet. People who are vomiting should be fed small frequent amounts of ORS solution until dehydration is resolved. Once they are rehydrated, they may resume eating normal foods when nausea passes. Vomiting itself does not mean that oral rehydration cannot be given. As long as more fluid enters than exits, rehydration will be accomplished. It is only when the volume of fluid and electrolyte loss in vomit and stool exceeds what is taken in that dehydration will continue. When vomiting occurs, rest the stomach for ten minutes and then offer small amounts of ORS solution. Start with a teaspoonful every five minutes in children and a tablespoonful every five minutes in older children and adults. If output exceeds intake or signs of moderate to severe dehydration occur, medical assistance should be sought.

  10. Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) a simple, cost-effective treatment given at home using either a simple home solution of sugar, salt and water or a packet of Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS), costing about 10 cents each can prevent about 90% of child deaths from diarrhoeal dehydration.