A republic (Latin: res publica, meaning "public affair") is a form of government in which "power is held by the people and their elected representatives". In republics, the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
Democracy (Greek: δημοκρατία, dēmokratiā, from dēmos...
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From 1991, the Czech Republic, originally as part of Czechoslovakia and since 1993 in its own right, has been a member of the Visegrád Group and from 1995, the OECD. The Czech Republic joined NATO on 12 March 1999 and the European Union on 1 May 2004. On 21 December 2007 the Czech Republic joined the Schengen Area.
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Three interpretations of the Republicare presented in the following section; they are not exhaustive in their treatments of the work, but are examples of contemporary interpretation.
Definition of justice
In the first book, two definitions of justice are proposed but deemed inadequate. Returning debts owed, and helping friends while harming enemies, are commonsense definitions of justice that, Socrates shows, are inadequate in exceptional situations, and thus lack the rigidity demanded of a definition. Yet he does not completely reject them, for each expresses a commonsense notion of justice that Socrates will incorporate into his discussion of the just regime in books II through V. At the end...
Theory of universals
The Republic contains Plato's Allegory of the Cave with which he explains his concept of the Forms as an answer to the problem of universals. The Allegory of the Cave primarily depicts Plato's distinction between the world of appearances and the 'real' world of the Forms,as well as helping to justify the philosopher's place in society as king. Plato imagines a group of people who have lived their entire lives as prisoners, chained to the wall of a cave in the subterranean so they are unable t...
Dialectical forms of government
While Plato spends much of the Republichaving Socrates narrate a conversation about the city he founds with Glaucon and Adeimantus "in speech", the discussion eventually turns to considering four regimes that exist in reality and tend to degrade successively into each other: timocracy, oligarchy (also called plutocracy), democracy and tyranny (also called despotism). Timocracy Socrates defines a timocracyas a government of people who love rule and honor. Socrates argues that the timocracy eme...
Plato's most prominent pupil Aristotle, systematises many of Plato's analyses in his Politika, and criticizes the propositions of several political philosophers for the ideal city-state.
It has been suggested that Isocrates parodies the Republic in his work Busirisby showing Callipolis' similarity to the Egyptian state founded by a king of that name. Zeno of Citium, the founder of Stoicism, wrote his version of an ideal society, Zeno's Republic, in opposition to Plato's Republic. Zeno's Republic was controversial and was viewed with some embarrassment by some of the later Stoics due to its defenses of free love, incest, and cannibalism and due to its opposition to ordinary ed...
Islamic philosophers were much more interested in Aristotle than Plato, but not having access to Aristotle's Politics, Ibn Rushd (Averroes) produced instead a commentary onPlato's Republic. He advances an authoritarian ideal, following Plato's paternalistic model. Absolute monarchy, led by a philosopher-king, creates a justly ordered society. This requires extensive use of coercion, although persuasion is preferred and is possible if the young are properly raised.Rhetoric, not logic, is the a...
The Republic is generally placed in the middle period of Plato's dialogues—that is, it is believed to be written after the early period dialogues but before the late period dialogues. However, the distinction of this group from the early dialogues is not as clear as the distinction of the late dialogues from all the others. Nonetheless, Ritter, Arnim, and Baron—with their separate methodologies—all agreed that the Republic was well distinguished, along with Parmenides, Phaedrus and Theaetetus. However, the first book of the Republic, which shares many features with earlier dialogues, is thought to have originally been written as a separate work, and then the remaining books were conjoined to it, perhaps with modifications to the original of the first book.
Several Oxyrhynchus Papyri fragments were found to contain parts of the Republic, and from other works such as Phaedo, or the dialogue Gorgias, written around 200–300 CE. Fragments of a different version of Plato's Republic were discovered in 1945, part of the Nag Hammadi library, written ca. 350 CE.These findings highlight the influence of Plato during those times in Egypt.Rowe, Christopher (2012). Plato: Republic. London: Penguin.Sachs, Joe (2007). Plato: Republic. Newburyport: Focus Publishing.Allen, R.E. (2006). Plato: The Republic. New Haven: Yale University Press.Reeve, C.D.C. (2004). Plato: The Republic. Indianapolis: Hackett.Texts of the Republic:The Republic public domain audiobook at LibriVox"Plato's Republic". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
A republic is a form of government that has no monarchy and no hereditary aristocracy. It originates from Rome. In 509 BC, the Romans overthrew the Roman Kingdom and established a republic, a government in which citizens elected representatives to rule on their behalf.
A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. At its core, the literal meaning of the word republic when used to reference a form of government means: "a country that is governed by elected representatives and by an elected leader (such as a president) rather than by a king or queen".CountryOfficial Name And StyleAdministrative DivisionsForm Of GovernmentArgentine RepublicProvinces (23) and autonomous city (1)Republic of AustriaBosnia and HerzegovinaEntities (2) and self-governing district ...Federative Republic of BrazilStates (26) and federal district (1)
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The island of Hispaniola was discovered by Christopher Columbus on December 5th, 1492, but the first time that he saw part of the present Dominican Republic was on January 4th, 1493 when he saw a headland that he named Monte Cristi ("Mountain of Christ"). That mountain is called now El Morro and is near the city of Monte Cristi. From Monte Cristi, Columbus went east along the north coast of the island and on 6 January, after visiting the Samaná Bay, he went back to Spain. In his second trip to America, he founded the first European city in the continent, La Isabela, near the present city of Puerto Plata. Later, Bartholomew Columbus founded the city of Santo Domingo, the oldest permanent European city in the Americas. From here, many Spaniards went to conquer other islands (Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico). Because Cuba was closer to the continent, many people moved there from Hispaniola, and then to the continent. Because of that, the population of the island grew very slowly. By the Tre...
The Dominican Republic is a presidential democratic republic. The government is divided in three branches: the Executive, the Legislative and the Judiciary. The Executive branch is made up of the President, the Vice President and the Ministers who are called Secretaries of State. The President is chief of state and head of government and is elected every 4 years. He nominates the cabinet. The current president is Danilo Medina Sánchez. The Legislative branch makes the laws and is made up of the Congress, which is in Santo Domingo, the capital of the Dominican Republic. The Congress is divided into two groups: the Senate, with 32 members (one for every province and one for the National District), and the Chamber of Deputies with 178 members. The Judicial branch is made up of the courtsof the country, including the Supreme Court of Justice.
The Dominican Republic is a constitutional democracy ruled by a president. The president is elected every 4 years. The current president is Danilo Medina Sánchez, of the PLD. There are 3 important political partiesin the Dominican Republic: 1. PRD: the Dominican Revolutionary Party (Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Dominicano). The PRD is a somewhat socialist party. The party was founded in 1939 in Havana, Cuba. It was then established in the Dominican Republic in 1961. 2. PRSC: the Social Christian Reformist Party (Spanish: Partido Reformista Social Cristiano). It is a conservativeparty founded in 1964 by Joaquín Balager, who was President of the Republic from 1966-78 and 1986-96. 3. PLD: the Dominican Liberation Party (Spanish: Partido de la Liberación Dominicana) was somewhat socialist when it was founded in 1973; currently it's a liberalparty.
There are several mountain chains in the Dominican Republic. The four main chains, from North to South, are: 1. Cordillera Septentrional(in English, "Northern mountain range"), close to the Atlantic Ocean. 2. Cordillera Central (in English, "Central mountain range") that continues into northern Haiti where it is called Massif du Nord. The highest mountains of the West Indies are in this chain; Pico Duarte, with 3,087 m, is the highest.The main rivers of the Hispaniola have their sources in this mountain range. 3. Sierra de Neiba. 4. Sierra de Bahoruco, known in Haití as Massif de la Selle. Between those mountains, there are several important valleys, such as: 1. The Cibao Valley (Dominican Republic) is the largest and most important valley of the country. This long valley stretches from North Haiti to Samaná Bay, south of the Cordillera Septentrional. 2. The San Juan Valley and Plainof Azua are big valleys south of the Cordillera Central. 3. The Hoya de Enriquilloor Neiba Valley is...
The Dominican Republic has a total population, estimated for July 2009, of 9,650,054 inhabitants, for a densityof 236.30 inhabitants per km². About 64% of Dominicans live in cities and towns and 87% of people that are 15 years old or more can read and write. The two largest cities are Santo Domingo(the capital city) with 1,817,754 inhabitants, and Santiago, in the Cibao Valley and with 908,250 inhabitants. The ethnic composition of Dominicans is around 70% Mulatto & Mestizo, 15% Black, 14% White and 1% Asian and Indigenous. 1. Mulatto Dominicans: They are mainly descendants of Southern Europeans and West Africans, but they have a little Indigenous Taino ancestry. 2. Mestizo Dominicans: They are mainly descendants of Southern Europeans and Indigenous people of the island of Hispaniola; some of them have a little West & Central African ancestry. 3. Black Dominicans: They are descendants of West Africans that were brought over as slaves to work mostly on sugar cane plantations. Most of...
The Dominican Republic is divided into 31 provinces. The national capital Santo Domingo de Guzmán is in the Distrito Nationalthat is like a province and elects one Senator. The provinces are:
The Dominican Republic has a mixed economy based mainly on agriculture, services (including tourism and finance), trade and money sent from the many Dominicans that live in other countries (United States, Europe). Agricultural production (mainly sugarcane, with smaller amounts of coffee, cacao, and tobacco) was the main economic activity but now is in third place after tourism and manufacturing in zonas francas ("free zones" where the industries do not pay taxesand all the production is sent to other countries). Mining is also important, mainly ferronickel (nickel with iron) and gold. The Dominican Republic suffers from poverty, with 83.3% of the population living below the poverty line in 2012. The wealth distribution is uneven: the richest 10% gets nearly 40% of national income.
The culture of the Dominican Republic, like in other Caribbean countries, is a mix of Taíno, African and European (mainly Spanish) cultures. There are not many Taíno traditions in the modern Dominican culture; many places keep their Taíno names: Dajabón, Bánica, Haina, Yaque, Samaná, etc. Also many objects, plants and animals have a Taíno origin and their names have been included in other languages; for example: canoa (canoe, a small boat), hamaca (hammock, a simple bed), maíz (maize, corn), yuca (cassava, that comes from the Taíno word casabe, a kind of cassava bread eaten in the Caribbean), and batata (sweet potato). That mix of different traditions created a culture that is known as Creole (in Spanish: Criolla), common to all countries in the Caribbean, Louisiana and some parts of South America and Central America.
Notes: 1. The non-working holidays are not moved to another day. 2. If a movable holiday falls on Saturday, Sunday or Monday then it is not moved to another day. If it falls on Tuesday or Wednesday, the holiday is moved to the previous Monday. If it falls on Thursday or Friday, the holiday is moved to the next Monday.