Surgery is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a person to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Plastic surgery is a surgical specialty involving the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body. It can be divided into two main categories: reconstructive surgery and cosmetic surgery. Reconstructive surgery includes craniofacial surgery, hand surgery, microsurgery, and the treatment of burns. While reconstructive surgery ...
- Medical uses
- Adverse effects
- Subsequent procedures
- Eating after bariatric surgery
Bariatric surgery includes a variety of procedures performed on people who are obese. Long term weight loss through Standard of Care procedures is largely achieved by altering gut hormone levels that are responsible for hunger and satiety, leading to a new hormonal weight set point. Bariatric surgery is a hormonal surgery in these procedures, for which the alteration in gut hormones develops as a result of the procedure's restriction and malabsorption. Long-term studies show the procedures cause
A medical guideline by the American College of Physicians concluded: 1. "Surgery should be considered as a treatment option for patients with a BMI of 40 kg/m2 or greater who instituted but failed an adequate exercise and diet program and who present with obesity-related comorbid conditions, such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and obstructive sleep apnea. A doctor–patient discussion of surgical options should include the long-term side ...
Weight loss surgery in adults is associated with relatively large risks and complications, compared to other treatments for obesity. The likelihood of major complications from weight-loss surgery is 4%. “Sleeve gastrectomy had the lowest complication and reoperation rates of the three procedures.....The percentage of procedures requiring reoperations due to complications was 15.3 percent for the gastric band, 7.7 percent for gastric bypass and 1.5 percent for sleeve gastrectomy ...
Bariatric procedures can be grouped in three main categories: blocking, restricting, and mixed, the latter understood to work by altering gut hormone levels responsible for hunger and satiety. A retrospective observational cohort study between 2005 to 2015 explored bariatric procedures for comparative effectiveness, and found that different procedures may help patients lose more weight, while others have increased chances of adverse events. Standard of care in the United States and most of the i
After a person successfully loses weight following bariatric surgery, they are usually left with excess skin. These are addressed in a series of plastic surgery procedures sometimes called body contouring in which the skin flaps are removed. Targeted areas include the arms, buttocks and thighs, abdomen, and breasts. These procedures are taken slowly, step by step, and from beginning to end often takes three years. A single body lifting operation can require seven to 10 hours under general anesth
Immediately after bariatric surgery, the patient is restricted to a clear liquid diet, which includes foods such as clear broth, diluted fruit juices or sugar-free drinks and gelatin desserts. This diet is continued until the gastrointestinal tract has recovered somewhat from the surgery. The next stage provides a blended or pureed sugar-free diet for at least two weeks. This may consist of high protein, liquid or soft foods such as protein shakes, soft meats, and dairy products. Foods high in c
- Weight loss surgery
Surgery (from Ancient Greek: χειρουργία, romanized: kheírourgía, lit. 'hand labour', from χείρ kheír "hand" and ἔργον ergón "work") is the branch of medicine that deals with the physical manipulation of a bodily structure to diagnose, prevent, or cure an ailment.
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Surgery is an operation that involves cutting, taking out, changing or fixing parts of the human body. Doctors who do surgeries are called surgeons.Many surgeons are experts in certain areas; for example, a surgeon that operates on bones is called an orthopaedic surgeon.
- Prior to surgery
- Surgical procedures
- Post-surgical considerations
Sex reassignment surgery, also known as gender reassignment surgery and several other names, is a surgical procedure by which a transgender person's physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are altered to resemble those socially associated with their identified gender. It is part of a treatment for gender dysphoria in transgender people. Professional medical organizations have established Standards of Care that apply before someone can apply for and receive reass
There are numerous other expressions that are used to refer to this type of surgery apart from sexual reassignment surgery and gender reassignment surgery. The American Society of Plastic Surgeons uses the term gender confirmation surgery or GCS. Other terms include gender-affirming surgery, sex change operation, genital reconstruction surgery, sex realignment surgery, sex reconstruction surgery, and bottom surgery. Some transgender people who desire medical assistance to transition from one sex
The goal of early transition surgeries was the removal of hormone-producing organs in order to reduce their masculinizing or feminizing effects. Later, as surgical technique became more complex, the goal became to produce functional sex organs from sex organs that are already present in the patient. In the US in 1917, Dr. Alan L. Hart, an American tuberculosis specialist, became one of the first female-to-male transsexuals to undergo hysterectomy and gonadectomy for the relief of gender dysphori
Some transgender persons present with health conditions including diabetes, asthma, and HIV, which can lead to complications with future therapy and pharmacologic management. Typical SRS procedures involve complex medication regimens, including hormonal therapy, throughout and af
SRS does not refer to surgery performed on infants with differences in sex development. Infants born with intersex conditions might undergo interventions at or close to birth. This is controversial because of the human rights implications. Minors Sex reassignment surgery performe
Sex reassignment surgery can be difficult to obtain due to financial barriers, insurance coverage, and lack of providers. An increasing number of surgeons are now training to perform such surgeries. In many regions, an individual's pursuit of SRS is often governed, or at least gu
The array of medically indicated surgeries differs between trans women and trans men. For trans women, genital reconstruction usually involves the surgical construction of a vagina, by means of penile inversion or the sigmoid colon neovagina technique; or, more recently, non-peni
The best known of these surgeries are those that reshape the genitals, which are also known as genital reassignment surgery or genital reconstruction surgery (GRS)- or bottom surgery. However, the meaning of "sex reassignment surgery" has been clarified by the medical subspecialt
Patients of sex reassignment surgery may experience changes in their physical health and quality of life, as well as side effects of sex steroid treatment. Several studies have measured quality of life and self-perceived physical health using different scales. Overall, transsexua
After sex reassignment surgery, transsexuals tend to be less gender dysphoric. They also normally function well both socially and psychologically. Anxiety, depression and hostility levels were lower after sex reassignment surgery. They also tend to score well for self-perceived m
Looking specifically at transsexual people's genital sensitivities, trans men and trans women are capable of maintaining their genital sensitivities after SRS. However, these are counted upon the procedures and surgical tricks which are used to preserve the sensitivity. Consideri
Effectiveness. In 2006, the British National Health Service's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) considered evidence of the effectiveness and the potential risks of the laser surgery stating "current evidence suggests that photorefractive (laser) surgery for the correction of refractive errors is safe and effective for use in appropriately selected patients.
General surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on abdominal contents including esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, appendix and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland (depending on local referral patterns).
- Item Pack
- Skill Fail/Surgeon Skill
- Types of Problems
- Other Conditions
- Additional Tips
These are all the tools required to do surgery. Not each tool is required to complete surgery but it is advised that players carry each tool in case they are required during surgery.
The Surgical Kit, which contains 5 of all the needed tools, is available in the Store for 12,000 gems.
Skill Fail is a randomly-generating mechanism designed to make surgery harder. During surgery, the surgeon may fail to use a tool properly. In the event of a skill fail, the player is required to do that step again before continuing. If a player's Surgeon Skill is higher, the player will receive less skill fails. Players with a low Surgeon Skill will face more skill fails and is part of the learning process to becoming better at surgery. Players with a Surgeon Skill of 100 can still face skil...
Before conducting any surgery on a patient, all problems before the surgery has begun must be addressed. 1. If the patient's temperature is rising, Surgical Lab Kit must be used to unlock the Surgical Antibiotics which is then given to the patient. 1. If the patient is rapidly losing blood, Surgical Stitches must be given to the patient. 1. If the patient has a weak pulse, Surgical Transfusion must be given to the patient. 1. If the patient has any broken bones, Surgical Splint must be given...
During surgery, some patients may have special conditions on top of their problems. This makes the patient harder to perform surgery on and a higher chance of failing. They include: 1. \\"The patient exhibits very tough skin. Possibly a superhero.\\" - requires an extra use of a Surgical Scalpel before the Fix it button appears. 2. \\"The patient has an antibiotic-resistant infection.\\" - Surgical Antibiotics reduce the temperature of the patient less. 3. \\"The patient is absolutely filthy.\\" - requir...
Upon completing surgery, the player will directly receive a prize. Some of the rewards are much rarer than the rest. If a player receives a common prize, the player will also be rewarded with a Caduceus, which can later be traded in for items when calling the Sales-Man using a Telephone.Among the possible prizes are: 1. Any Surgical Tool x5 2. Scrub Mask 3. Scrub Top 4. Scrub Pants 5. Scrub Cap 6. Candy Striper Cap 7. Candy Striper Skirt 8. Candy Striper Uniform 9. Hospital Wall x10 10. Hospi...
1. Malpractice - If the player fails or gives up any surgery, the player is unable to do surgery for the next hour (can be removed instantly using Legal Briefs). 2. Recovering - If the player has had surgery (failed or not), the player cannot have surgery performed on them for the next four hours.
In the Doctors' Duel Daily Challenge, players compete to complete the most successful surgeries in two hours (50 points per surgery and -1 point per tool used).There is also a Surgery Day where both the Malpractice and Recovering mods are shorter than usual. Special prizes such as the Plague Doctor Mask can also be obtained during this day.During a Surgeon Day, the points one earns after completing a Surgeon role quest is increased by 25%. Doing so for the first time of the day will reward a...
1. Before surgery it is heavily advised that players have enough backpack space to collect their prize. Otherwise, they will fall on the ground, allowing other players to pick them up. 2. A surgery is possible to be done without the use of Surgical Antiseptic. This is not recommended, however, for players with a low skill level. 3. It is advised for any player new to surgery to do the easier surgeries. When the player has reached Surgeon Skill 100, they can attempt harder surgeries such as M...
1. Players can talk during surgery by clicking any of the blank tools and quickly pressing the chat button (or the Enter button). 2. Players can trade in the Caduceus they earn from receiving common prizes from surgery to the Sales-Man for rarer items, such as the Thingamabob and Medical Scarf. They may also receive either a Sales-Man Standee or the Sales Shades after purchasing. 3. Successfully performing a Massive Trauma surgery for the first time ever completes an Epic Quest.