- Weeks and bibliographer John M. Nickles of the library staff, with the assistance of three consultants from the New York Public Library, developed the USGS classification system designed specifically for an earth science library. iii Seven schedules were created: 1.
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The Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) is a soil classification system used in engineering and geology to describe the texture and grain size of a soil.The classification system can be applied to most unconsolidated materials, and is represented by a two-letter symbol.
Weeks and bibliographer John M. Nickles of the library staff, with the assistance of three consultants from the New York Public Library, developed the USGS classification system designed specifically for an earth science library. The U.S. Geological Survey Library classification system has been designed for earth science libraries.
Mr. Weeks and bibliographer John M. Nickles of the library staff, with the assistance of three consultants from the New York Public Library, developed the USGS classification system designed specifically for an earth science library. iii Seven schedules were created: 1.
- R. Scott Sasscer
Mr. Weeks and bibliographer John M. Nickles of the library staff, with the assistance of three consultants from the New York Public Library, developed a classification system designed specifically for an earth science library. Six schedules were outlined.
- R. Scott Sasscer
- Image Classification
- Accuracy Assessment
- Global Land Cover Data
The first version of NLCD--NLCD 92--was produced for subsets of ten federal regions that make up the conterminous United States. The primary source data were bands 3, 4, 5, and 7 (visible red, near-infrared, mid-infrared, and thermal infrared) of cloud-free Landsat TM scenes acquired during the spring and fall (when trees are mostly bare of leaves) of 1992. Selected scenes were geometrically and radiometrically corrected, then combined into sub-regional mosaics comprised of no more than 18 scenes. Mosaics were then projected to the same Albers Conic Equal Area projection (with standard parallels at 29.5° and 45.5° North Latitude, and central meridian at 96° West Longitude) based upon the NAD83horizontal datum.
An unsupervised classificationalgorithm was applied to the preprocessed mosaics to generate 100 spectrally distinct pixel clusters. Using aerial photographs and other references, image analysts at USGS then assigned each cluster to one of the classes in a modified version of the Anderson classification scheme. Considerable interpretation was required, since not all functional classes have unique spectral response patterns. Modified Anderson Land Use/Land Cover Classification used for the USGS National Land Cover Dataset.
The USGS hired private sector vendors to assess the classification accuracy of the NLCD 92 by checking randomly sampled pixels against manually interpreted aerial photographs. Results from the first four completed regions suggested that the likelihood that a given pixel is correctly classified ranges from only 38 to 62 percent. Much of the classification error was found to occur among the Level II classes that make up the various Level I classes, and some classes were much more error-prone than others. USGS encourages users to aggregate the data into 3 x 3 or 5 x 5 pixel blocks(in other words, to decrease spatial resolution from 30 meters to 90 or 150 meters), or to aggregate the 21 Level II classes into the nine Level I classes. Even in the current era of high-resolution satellite imaging and sophisticated image processing techniques, there is still no cheap and easy way to produce detailed, accurate geographic data. For more information about NLCD 92 and its successor, NLCD 2001,...
Meanwhile, the U.S. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (formerly the National Imagery and Mapping Agency) hired a company called Earthsat (Now MDA Federal) to produce a 120-meter resolution, 13-class land use / land cover data set for the rest of the world. This product, called Geocover LC, is derived from 30-meter Landsat TM imagery from the 1990s and 2000. A team of image analysts assigned 240 clusters produced by unsupervised classification into the thirteen land use/ land cover classes (Barrios, 2001). For more information about Geocover LC, visit MDA Information Systems(link is external) and GeoCover LC(link is external).
The classification system has been developed to meet the needs of Federal and State agencies for an up-to-date overview of land use and land cover throughout the country on a basis that is uniform in categorization at the more generalized first and second levels and that will be receptive to data from satellite and aircraft remote sensors.
The classification system for the New York State Land Use and Natural Re sources Inventory, developed mainly at the Center for Aerial Photographic Studies at Cornell Univer sity, had been designed for use with aerial photogra phy at 1 : 24,000 scale, and although devised speoifi cally for New York State, it was adaptable for rlse elsewhere.
The USGS occupational career ladders are found in Instructional Memoranda OOP-03-002, Interim Guidance on U.S. Geological Survey career ladders, April 2003. These career ladders were developed for occupations within the USGS and are generally applicable to most positions within the specific occupations.
The data set incorporates the Ecological System classification system developed by NatureServe to represent natural and semi-natural vegetation. The 584 unique classes in the data set can be displayed at three levels of detail, from general (8 classes) to most detailed.
Accuracy of point classification into classes beyond the minimum scheme will not be assessed by the USGS, as documented in metadata. Assessing and verifying accuracy of point classification into classes beyond the minimum scheme will be the responsibility of the partner requesting the additional classes.