1819 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1819th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 819th year of the 2nd millennium, the 19th year of the 19th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1810s decade.
Events. January 2 – The Panic of 1819, the first major financial crisis in the United States, begins. January 25 – Thomas Jefferson founds the University of Virginia. January 30 – Romney Literary Society established as the Polemic Society of Romney, West Virginia. February 2 – The Supreme Court under John Marshall rules in favor of ...
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- Post-war European readjustments and the American economy: 1815–1818
- Unregulated banking and the imperatives of Republican enterprise
- Resurrection of the Bank of the United States
- Prelude to panic: 1816–1818
- Panic "precipitated"
The Panic of 1819 was the first widespread and durable financial crisis in the United States and some historians have called it the first Great Depression. It was followed by a general collapse of the American economy that persisted through 1821. The Panic heralded the transition of the nation from its colonial commercial status with Europe toward an independent economy. Though the downturn was driven by global market adjustments in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars, its severity was compound
The United States and the United Kingdom signed the Treaty of Ghent on December 24, 1814, ending the War of 1812. The British government effectively relinquished its effort to impose mercantilist policies on the United States, preparing the way for the development of free trade and the opening of America's vast western frontier. Europe was undergoing a period of disorganization as it readjusted to peacetime production and commerce in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars. The general effect was a
With the failure to recharter the First Bank of the United States in 1811, regulatory influence over state banks ceased. Credit-friendly Republicans—entrepreneurs, bankers, farmers—adapted laissez-faire financial principles to the precepts of Jeffersonian political libertarianism—equating land speculation with "rugged individualism" and the frontier spirit. Private banking interests and their allies sought to evade or resist any threat to the profitability of their local enterprises ...
The Democratic-Republican party found itself in control of the national government with the collapse of the Federalist party at the end of the War of 1812. Some of the traditional Jeffersonian agrarian precepts—especially strict construction of the Constitution—had ...
In the crucible of the War of 1812, the Treasury of the United States had been compelled to offer $16 million in government war bonds in order to stave off bankruptcy due to military costs and wartime loss of revenue. Financier Stephen Girard, business magnate John Jacob Astor an
The revival of the Bank of the United States had two primary objectives: first, to reverse the post-war inflationary practices of state-chartered banks by inducing resumption of convertibility, and second, to expand the opportunities for the common man to acquire bank credit, pro
President of the United States James Madison and Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Dallas fully approved the elevation of William Jones—one of the federally appointed Bank directors—to SBUS President in October 1816. Jones, formerly a member of Madison's cabinet, owed his promotion more to his political acumen than his skills as a banker. Financier and co-director Stephen Girard was troubled at Jones' promotion, concerned that he could never provide disinterested leadership for the ...
The onset of the financial panic has been variously described as "triggered", "pricked", or "precipitated" by the Second Bank of the United States when it initiated a sharp credit contraction beginning in the summer of 1818. The eruption of Mount Tambora in 1815 had created the Year Without a Summer, causing European agriculture to fail that year. The link between the frontier land boom and overseas markets for staple goods was dramatically revealed in 1817, when Europe finally recovered from it
Johann Franz Encke computes the orbit of Comet Encke, identifying it as periodic.July 1 – Johann Georg Tralles discovers the Great Comet of 1819, (C/1819 N1). It is the first comet analyzed using polarimetry, by François Arago.
- Astronomy and Space Science
Joseph Bienaimé Caventou and Pierre Joseph Pelletier isolate the alkaloid brucine from Strychnos nux-vomica.February 19 – Captain William Smith in British merchant brig Williams sights Williams Point, the northeast extremity of Livingston Island in the South Shetlands, the first land discovered south of...October 15 – Desolation Island in the South Shetland Islands of the Antarctic is discovered by Captain William Smith in the Williams.A British Arctic expedition under William Edward Parry comprising HMS Hecla and HMS Griper reaches longitude 112°51' W in the Northwest Passage, the furthest west which will be attained by any sing...
G. B. Greenough publishes his book A critical examination of the first principles of geology in a series of essaysin London.August – René Laennec publishes De l’Auscultation Médiate ou Traité du Diagnostic des Maladies des Poumons et du Coeur in Paris, describing his invention of the stethoscope.English physician John Bostock publishes the first account of allergic rhinitis(in himself).French physician Pierre Amable Jean-Baptiste Trannoy publishes one of the first epidemiology treatises in France: Traité élémentaire des maladies épidémiques ou populaires à l'usage des officiers d...May 22 – SS Savannah leaves port at Savannah, Georgia on a voyage to become the first steamship to cross the Atlantic Ocean, although only a fraction of the trip is made under steam. The ship arriv...Invention of the M1819 breech-loading flintlock using interchangeable parts by Captain John H. Hall of Harpers Ferry Armory in the United States.
Cambridge Philosophical Society founded as a scientific society at the University of Cambridgein England.March 24 – Friedrich Theodor von Frerichs (died 1885), German medical pathologist.May 3 (O.S. April 21) – Nikolai Annenkov (died 1889), Russian botanist.June 5 – John Couch Adams (died 1892), Cornish-born mathematician and astronomer.July 17 – Eunice Newton Foote (died 1888), American physicist and women's rights campaigner.January – Elsa Beata Bunge (born 1734), Swedish botanist.August 19 – James Watt (born 1736), British inventor, mechanical engineer and mathematician.November 22 – John Stackhouse (born 1742), English botanist.
1. 22 februarie: Spania cedează Florida Statelor Unite.
1. 23 martie: Asasinarea poetului August von Kotzebue la Mannheim, informator al țarului, de un student la teologie Karl Sand angajat într-o mișcăre radicală. Această crimă a dat Metternichpretextul de a emite decretele Carlsbad din 1819, care a dizolvat frății, a cenzurat presa liberală și limitat grav libertatea academică în statele Confederației germane. 2. 25 martie: Pentru prima dată în Europa Centrală, la Timișoarase administrează vaccinul antivariolic.
1. 6-31 august: Decretele de la Carlsbad. Rezoluții emise de conducătorii germani pentru a suprima tendințele liberale și naționaliste.8 februarie: John Ruskin, scriitor, critic de artă și filosof englez (d. 1900)22 februarie: James Russell Lowell, poet și eseist american (d. 1891)17 martie: Alecu Russo (n. Alexandru Russo), poet, prozator, eseist, memorialist și critic literar, ideolog al generației de la 1848 (d. 1859)4 aprilie: Regina Maria II a Portugaliei (d. 1853)2 ianuarie: Maria Luisa de Parma, 67 ani, soția regelui Carol al IV-lea al Spaniei (n. 1751)9 ianuarie: Marea Ducesă Ecaterina Pavlovna a Rusiei, 30 ani, fiica țarului Pavel I al Rusiei (n. 1788)20 ianuarie: Carol al IV-lea al Spaniei, 70 ani (n. 1748)6 octombrie: Charles Emmanuel al IV-lea al Sardiniei (n. Carlo Emanuele Ferdinando Maria di Savoia), 68 ani (n. 1751)
"England in 1819" is a political sonnet by the English Romantic poet Percy Bysshe Shelley which reflects his liberal ideals.
The poem was composed in 1819, but it was not published until 1839 in the four-volume The Poetical Works of Percy Bysshe Shelley edited by Mary Shelley. Like all sonnets, "England in 1819" has fourteen lines and is written in iambic pentameter, but its rhyming scheme differs from that of the traditional English sonnet.
The sonnet describes a very forlorn reality. The poem passionately attacks, as the poet sees it, England's decadent, oppressive ruling class. King George III is described as "old, mad, blind, despised, and dying". The "leech-like" nobility metaphorically suck the blood from the people, who are, in the sonnet, oppressed, hungry, and hopeless, their fields untilled. Meanwhile, the army is corrupt and dangerous to liberty, the laws are harsh and useless, religion has lost its morality, and Parliame
- Percy Bysshe Shelley
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Bloavezhioù: 1816 1817 1818 - 1819 - 1820 1821 1822: Dekvedoù: 1790 1800 - Bloavezhioù 1810 - 1820 1830: Kantvedoù: XVIII vet kantved - XIX vet kantved - XX vet ...