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      • Absolute monarchy [1] [2] (or absolutism as doctrine) is a form of monarchy in which the monarch holds supreme autocratic authority, principally not being restricted by written laws, legislature, or customs. [3] These are often hereditary monarchies.
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  2. e. Absolute monarchy (or Absolutism as a doctrine) is a form of monarchy in which the monarch rules in their own right. In this kind of monarchy, the king is usually limited by a constitution (since modern times). However, in some absolute monarchies, the king is by no means limited and has absolute power. These are often hereditary monarchies.

  3. An Absolute monarchy is a form of monarchy where one person, usually called a monarch holds absolute power. It is in contrast to constitutional monarchy, which is restrained or controlled by other groups of people. Controllers may be an entity such as clergy, lawmakers, social elites or a written constitution.

    • Denmark–Norway
    • France
    • Prussia
    • Russia
    • Sweden

    Absolutism was underpinned by a written constitution for the first time in Europe in 1665 Kongeloven, 'King's Law' of Denmark–Norway, which ordered that the Monarch This law consequently authorized the king to abolish all other centers of power. Most important was the abolition of the Council of the Realm in Denmark. Absolute monarchy lasted until ...

    Louis XIV of France (1638–1715) is often said to have proclaimed L'état, c'est moi!, 'I am the State!'. Although often criticized for his extravagances, such as the Palace of Versailles, he reigned over France for a long period, and some historians consider him a successful absolute monarch. More recently, revisionist historians[who?] have question...

    In Brandenburg-Prussia, the concept of absolute monarch took a notable turn from the above with its emphasis on the monarch as the "first servant of the state", but it also echoed many of the important characteristics of absolutism. Frederick William (r. 1640–1688), known as the Great Elector, used the uncertainties of the final stages of the Thirt...

    Until 1905, the Tsars and Emperors of Russia governed as absolute monarchs. Ivan the Terrible was known for his reign of terror through oprichnina. Peter I the Great reduced the power of the Russian nobility and strengthened the central power of the monarch, establishing a bureaucracy and a police state. This tradition of absolutism, known as Tsari...

    The form of government instituted in Sweden under King Charles XI and passed on to his son, Charles XII is commonly referred to as absolute monarchy; however, the Swedish monarch was never absolute in the sense that he wielded arbitrary power. The monarch still ruled under the law and could only legislate in agreement with the Riksdag of the Estate...

  4. Absolute monarchy in France slowly emerged in the 16th century and became firmly established during the 17th century. Absolute monarchy is a variation of the governmental form of monarchy in which the monarch holds supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs. In France, Louis XIV was the most famous exemplar of absolute monarchy, with his court central to French political and cultural life during his reign. It ended in May 1789, when

    • Overview
    • Synopsis
    • Reception

    Absolute Monarchs: A History of the Papacy is a 2011 book by the English popular historian John Julius Norwich published in the United States by Random House. It was published slightly earlier in the UK by Chatto & Windus under the title Popes: A History. It was introduced after Norwich had progressively built his reputation with more than twenty p...

    As indicated by its title, this is a history of the popes, from Saint Peter to Pope Benedict XVI. Although primarily factual, Norwich enlivens the historical record by sharing commentary and indicating motivations for the parties' decisions and actions. For example, in treating Charles Martel, Norwich asks if he would stop the advance of the Lombar...

    New York Times reviewer Bill Keller states of Norwich, "He keeps things moving at nearly beach-read pace by being selective about where he lingers and by adopting the tone of an enthusiastic tour guide, expert but less than reverent." The reviewer noted that Norwich has little to say about the theology of the Popes, and treats their doctrinal dispu...

    • John Julius Norwich
    • 12 July 2011
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