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Absolute monarchy (or absolutism as doctrine) is a form of monarchy in which the monarch holds supreme autocratic authority, principally not being restricted by written laws, legislature, or customs. These are often hereditary monarchies.
- Federal Monarchy
A federal monarchy, in the strict sense, is a federation of...
- History and examples of absolute monarchies
In Ancient Egypt, the Pharaoh wielded absolute power over...
- Contemporary trends
Many nations formerly with absolute monarchies, such as...
- Federal Monarchy
An Absolute monarchy is a form of monarchy where one person, usually called a monarch holds absolute power. It is in contrast to constitutional monarchy, which is restrained or controlled by other groups of people. Controllers may be an entity such as clergy, lawmakers, social elites or a written constitution.
Absolute monarchy is a variation of the governmental form of monarchy in which the monarch holds supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs. In France, Louis XIV was the most famous exemplar of absolute monarchy, with his court central to French political and cultural life during his reign.
- Historical Examples
- Contemporary Monarchies
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- Further Reading
In Ancient Egypt, the Pharaoh wielded absolute power over the country and was considered a living god by his people. In ancient Mesopotamia, many rulers of Assyria, Babylonia and Sumer were absolute monarchs as well. In ancient and medieval India, rulers of the Maurya, Satahavana, Gupta and Chalukya Empires, as well as other major and minor empires, were considered absolute monarchs. In the Khmer Empire, the kings were called "Devaraja" and "Chakravartin" (King of t...
Throughout much of European history, the divine right of kings was the theological justification for absolute monarchy. Many European monarchs, such as those of Russia, claimed supreme autocratic power by divine right, and that their subjects had no rights to limit their power. James VI of Scotland (later also James I of England) and his son Charles I of Scotland and England tried to import this principle. Charles I's attempt to enforce episcopal polity on th...
The popularity of the notion of absolute monarchy declined substantially after the American Revolution and the French Revolution, which promoted theories of government based on popular sovereignty. Many nations formerly with absolute monarchies, such as Jordan, Kuwait and Morocco, have moved towards constitutional monarchy, although in some cases the monarch retains tremendous power, to the point that the parliament's influence on political life is negligible. In Bhutan, the government moved from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy following planned parliamentary elections to the Tshogdu in 2003, and the election of a National Assembly in 2008. Nepal had several swings between constitutional rule and direct rule related to the Nepalese Civil War, the Maoist insurgency, and the 2001 Nepalese royal massacre, with the Nepalese monarchy being abolished on May 28, 2008. In Tonga, the King had major...
Anthropology, sociology, and ethology as well as various other disciplines such as political science attempt to explain the rise of absolute monarchy ranging from extrapolation generally, to certain Marxist explanations in terms of the class struggleas the underlying dynamic of human historical development generally and absolute monarchy in particular. In the 17th century, French legal theorist Jean Domat defended the concept of absolute monarchy in works such as "On Social Order and Absolute Monarchy", citing absolute monarchy as preserving natural order as Godintended. According to Norbert Elias's The Civilizing Process (1939), monarchs such as Louis XIV could enjoy such great power because of the structure of the societies at that time: more precisely, they could play off against each other two rival classes, namely the rising bourgeoisie, who grew wealthy from commerce and industrial production,...Beloff, Max. The Age of Absolutism From 1660 to 1815(1961)Blum, Jerome et al. The European World(vol 1 1970) pp 267–466Kimmel, Michael S. Absolutism and Its Discontents: State and Society in Seventeenth-Century France and England. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1988.
Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form o govrenment in which the monarch haes absolute pouer amang his or her fowk.
- Characteristics and role
- Current monarchies
A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch, is head of state for life or until abdication. The political legitimacy and authority of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic, to restricted, to fully autocratic, and can expand across the domains of the executive, legislative and judicial. A monarchy can be a polity through unity, personal union, vassalage or federation, and monarchs can carry various titles such as king, queen, emperor, Raja, khan, caliph, tsar, sultan, or
The word "monarch" comes from the Ancient Greek word μονάρχης, derived from μόνος and ἄρχω. It referred to a single at least nominally absolute ruler. In current usage the word monarchy usually refers to a traditional system of hereditary rule, as elective monarchies are quite rare.
The similar form of societal hierarchy known as chiefdom or tribal kingship is prehistoric. The oldest recorded and evidenced monarchies were Narmer, Pharaoh of Egypt c. 3100 BCE, and Enmebaragesi, a Sumerian King of Kish c. 2600 BCE. From earliest historical times, with the Egyptian and Mesopotamian monarchs as well as in reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion, the king held sacral functions directly connected to sacrifice or was considered by their people to have divine ancestry. In German
Monarchies are associated with hereditary reign, in which monarchs reign for life and the responsibilities and power of the position pass to their child or another member of their family when they die. Most monarchs, both historically and in the modern-day, have been born and brought up within a royal family, the centre of the royal household and court. Growing up in a royal family, future monarchs are often trained for their expected future responsibilities as monarch. Different systems of here
In a hereditary monarchy, the position of monarch is inherited according to a statutory or customary order of succession, usually within one royal family tracing its origin through a historical dynasty or bloodline. This usually means that the heir to the throne is known well in
In an elective monarchy, monarchs are elected or appointed by somebody for life or a defined period, but then reign like any other monarch. There is no popular vote involved in elective monarchies, as the elective body usually consists of a small number of eligible people. Histor
Other ways to success a monarchy can be through claiming alternative votes, claims of a mandate to rule, military occupation, a coup d'état, a will of the previous monarch or treaties between factions inside and outside of a monarchy. By accession See also: Enthronement The ...
Queen Elizabeth II is, separately, monarch of sixteen Commonwealth realms. They evolved out of the British Empire into fully independent states within the Commonwealth of Nations that retain the Queen as head of state. All sixteen realms are constitutional monarchies and full dem
The Principality of Andorra, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Kingdom of Norway, the Kingdom of Spain, and the Kingdom of Sweden are fully democratic states in which the monarch has a limited or lar
The Principality of Liechtenstein and the Principality of Monaco are constitutional monarchies in which the prince retains substantial powers. For example, the 2003 Constitution referendum gave the Prince of Liechtenstein the power to veto any law that the Landtag proposes, while
In an absolute monarchy the monarch is the only source of all laws. The monarch has total power to make any law just by deciding it. Any other institution in the country cannot make laws that affect the monarch, unless the monarch decides to allow it. Sometimes the monarch is also the head of the state religion and makes religious laws also.
A Constitutional Monarchy is a form of government, in which a king or queen is the official head of state, although their powers are limited by a constitution and often lack much real power, as the legislative branch is the primary governing body. A constitutional monarchy differs from an absolute monarchy in that in an absolute monarchy the monarch is able to rule with unchecked power, and are able to change the laws at their whim.StateLast constitution establishedType of monarchyMonarch selection1981KingdomHereditary succession.1993Selection of Bishop of La Seu d'Urgell and election of French President1901Constitutional Monarchy and Parliamentary Democracy.Hereditary succession.1973KingdomHereditary succession.
Absolute monarchy, in which a monarch rules free of laws or legally organized opposition; especially in the period c. 1610 – c. 1789 in Europe Enlightened absolutism, influenced by the Enlightenment (18th- and early 19th-century Europe) Autocracy, a political theory which argues that one person should hold all power
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