The automotive industry began in the 1860s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929, before the Great Depression , the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the U.S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them.
Automotive engineering, along with aerospace engineering and naval architecture, is a branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software, and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of motorcycles, automobiles, and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems.
Automotive design is the process of developing the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles, including automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, coaches, and vans.
The automotive industry refers to the design, manufacture, marketing and selling of motor vehicles. It is one of the world's biggest economic sectors in terms of the money it makes. The automotive industry began in the 1890s with hundreds of manufacturers making the " horseless carriage ".
Automotive electronics are electronic systems used in vehicles, including engine management, ignition, radio, carputers, telematics, in-car entertainment systems, and others.
- Battery in modern cars
- Use and maintenance
An automotive battery is a rechargeable battery that is used to start a motor vehicle. Its main purpose is to provide an electric current to the electricity-powered starting motor, which in turn starts the chemically-powered internal combustion engine that actually propels the vehicle. Once the engine is running, power for the car's electrical systems is still supplied by the battery, with the alternator charging the battery as demands increase or decrease.
Typically, starting uses less than three percent of the battery capacity. For this reason, automotive batteries are designed to deliver maximum current for a short period of time. They are sometimes referred to as "SLI batteries" for this reason, for starting, lighting and igniti
Electric vehicles are powered by a high-voltage electric vehicle battery, but they usually have an automotive battery as well, so that they can use standard automotive accessories which are designed to run on 12 V. They are often referred to as auxiliary batteries. Unlike convent
Early cars did not have batteries, as their electrical systems were limited. A bell was used instead of an electric horn, headlights were gas-powered, and the engine was started with a crank. Car batteries became widely used around 1920 as cars became equipped with electric starter motors. The sealed battery, which did not require refilling, was invented in 1971. The first starting and charging systems were designed to be 6-volt and positive-ground systems, with the vehicle's chassis directly co
An automobile battery is an example of a wet cell battery, with six cells. Each cell of a lead storage battery consists of alternate plates made of a lead alloy grid filled with sponge lead or coated with lead dioxide. Each cell is filled with a sulfuric acid solution, which is the electrolyte. Initially, cells each had a filler cap, through which the electrolyte level could be viewed and which allowed water to be added to the cell. The filler cap had a small vent hole which allowed hydrogen gas
Batteries are grouped by physical size, type and placement of the terminals, and mounting style.
Ampere hours is a unit related to the energy storage capacity of the battery. This rating is required by law in Europe.
A battery's ability to sustain a minimum stated electrical load; it is defined as the time that a lead-acid battery at 80 °F will continuously deliver 25 amperes before its voltage drops below 10.5 volts.
Excess heat is a main cause of battery failures, as when the electrolyte evaporates due to high temperatures, decreasing the effective surface area of the plates exposed to the electrolyte, and leading to sulfation. Grid corrosion rates increase with temperature. Also low temperatures can lead to battery failure. If the battery is discharged to the point where it can't start the engine, the engine can be jump started via an external source of power. Once running, the engine can recharge the batt
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The chief characteristic of an automotive engine (compared to a stationary engine or a marine engine) is a high power-to-weight ratio. This is achieved by using a high rotational speed. However, automotive engines are sometimes modified for marine use, forming a marine automobile engine.
Toyota, Nissan, Suzuki, Mazda, and Honda began as companies producing non-automotive products before the war, switching to car production during the 1950s. Kiichiro Toyoda's decision to take Toyoda Loom Works into automobile manufacturing would create what would eventually become Toyota Motor Corporation , the largest automobile manufacturer in ...
LEDs were first applied to automotive lighting in centre high-mount stop lamps (CHMSL), beginning with the 1986 Chevrolet Corvette. Adoption of LEDs for other signal functions on passenger cars is gradually increasing with demand for the technology and related styling updates.