The classic symptoms of a bacterial infection are localized redness, heat, swelling and pain. One of the hallmarks of a bacterial infection is local pain, pain that is in a specific part of the body. For example, if a cut occurs and is infected with bacteria, pain occurs at the site of the infection.
Bacterial pneumonia is a bacterial infection of the lungs. Urinary tract infection is predominantly caused by bacteria. Symptoms include the strong and frequent sensation or urge to urinate, pain during urination , and urine that is cloudy. 
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Sepsis is an inflammatory immune response triggered by an infection. Bacterial infections are the most common cause, but fungal, viral, and protozoan infections can also lead to sepsis. Common locations for the primary infection include the lungs, brain, urinary tract, skin, and abdominal organs.
- Signs and symptoms
BV is caused by an imbalance of the naturally occurring bacteria in the vagina. There is a change in the most common type of bacteria and a hundred to thousandfold increase in total numbers of bacteria present. Typically, bacteria other than Lactobacilli become more common. Risk factors include douching, new or multiple sex partners, antibiotics, and using an intrauterine device, among others. However, it is not considered a sexually transmitted infection. Diagnosis is suspected based on the sym
Although about 50% of women with BV are asymptomatic, common symptoms include increased vaginal discharge that usually smells like fish. The discharge is often white or gray in color. There may be burning with urination. Occasionally, there may be no symptoms. The discharge coats the walls of the vagina, and is usually without significant irritation, pain, or erythema, although mild itching can sometimes occur. By contrast, the normal vaginal discharge will vary in consistency and amount through
Healthy vaginal microbiota consists of species which neither cause symptoms or infections, nor negatively affect pregnancy. It is dominated mainly by Lactobacillus species. BV is defined by the disequilibrium in the vaginal microbiota, with decline in the number of lactobacilli. While the infection involves a number of bacteria, it is believed that most infections start with Gardnerella vaginalis creating a biofilm, which allows other opportunistic bacteria to thrive.
To make a diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis, a swab from inside the vagina should be obtained. These swabs should be tested for: 1. A characteristic "fishy" odor on wet mount. This test, called the whiff test, is performed by adding a small amount of potassium hydroxide to a microscopic slide containing the vaginal discharge. A characteristic fishy odor is considered a positive whiff test and is suggestive of bacterial vaginosis. 2. Loss of acidity. To control bacterial growth, the vagina is norm
Some steps suggested to lower the risk include: not douching, avoiding sex, or limiting the number of sex partners.
Treatment is typically with the antibiotics metronidazole or clindamycin. They can be either given by mouth or applied inside the vagina with similar efficacy. About 10% to 15% of people, however, do not improve with the first course of antibiotics and recurrence rates of up to 8
A 2009 Cochrane review found tentative but insufficient evidence for probiotics as a treatment for BV. A 2014 review reached the same conclusion. A 2013 review found some evidence supporting the use of probiotics during pregnancy. The preferred probiotics for BV are those contain
Topical antiseptics, for example dequalinium chloride, policresulen, hexetidine or povidone-iodine vaginal suppositories may be applied, if the risk of ascending infections is low. One study found that vaginal irrigations with hydrogen peroxide resulted in a slight improvement bu
- Signs and symptoms
The diagnosis of SBP requires paracentesis, a sampling of the peritoneal fluid taken from the peritoneal cavity. If the fluid contains large numbers of white blood cells known as neutrophils, infection is confirmed and antibiotics will be given, without waiting for culture results. In addition to antibiotics, infusions of albumin are usually administered. Other life-threatening complications such as kidney malfunction and increased liver insufficiency can be triggered by spontaneous bacterial pe
Signs and symptoms of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis include fevers, chills, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and tenderness, general malaise, altered mental status, and worsening ascites. Thirteen percent of patients have no signs or symptoms. In cases of acute or chronic liver failure SBP is one of the main triggers for hepatic encephalopathy, and where there is no other clear causal indication for this, SBP may be suspected.
SBP is most commonly caused by gram-negative E. coli, followed by Klebsiella. Common gram-positive bacteria identified include species of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and Enterococcus. The percentage of gram-positive bacteria responsible has been increasing.
H2 antagonists and proton-pump inhibitors are medications that decrease or suppress the secretion of acid by the stomach. Their use in treating cirrhosis is associated with the development of SBP. Bacterial translocation is thought to be the key mechanism for the development of SBP. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth which may be implicated in this translocation, is found in a large percentage of those with cirrhosis. With respect to compromised host defenses, patients with severe acute or ch
Infection of the peritoneum causes an inflammatory reaction with a subsequent increase in the number of neutrophils in the fluid. Diagnosis is made by paracentesis; SBP is diagnosed if the fluid contains neutrophils at greater than 250 cells per mm3 fluid in the absence of another reason for this.
All people with cirrhosis might benefit from antibiotics if
Bacillus cereus infection Bacillus cereus: Bacterial pneumonia: multiple bacteria Bacterial vaginosis (BV) multiple bacteria Bacteroides infection Bacteroides genus Balantidiasis: Balantidium coli: Baylisascaris infection Baylisascaris genus BK virus infection BK virus: Black piedra: Piedraia hortae: Blastocystis hominis infection Blastocystis hominis: Blastomycosis
- Signs and symptoms
Conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye, is inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid. It makes the eye appear pink or reddish. Pain, burning, scratchiness, or itchiness may occur. The affected eye may have increased tears or be "stuck shut" in the morning. Swelling of the white part of the eye may also occur. Itching is more common in cases due to allergies. Conjunctivitis can affect one or both eyes. The most common infectious causes ar
Red eye, swelling of the conjunctiva, and watering of the eyes are symptoms common to all forms of conjunctivitis. However, the pupils should be normally reactive, and the visual acuity normal. Conjunctivitis is identified by irritation and redness of the conjunctiva. Except in obvious pyogenic or toxic/chemical conjunctivitis, a slit lamp is needed to confirm the diagnosis. Examination of the eyelid conjunctiva is usually more diagnostic than examination of the scleral conjunctiva.
Infective conjunctivitis is most commonly caused by a virus. Bacterial infections, allergies, other irritants, and dryness are also common causes. Both bacterial and viral infections are contagious, passing from person to person or spread through contaminated objects or water. Contact with contaminated fingers is a common cause of conjunctivitis. Bacteria may also reach the conjunctiva from the edges of the eyelids and the surrounding skin, from the nasopharynx, from infected eye drops or contac
Cultures are not often taken or needed as most cases resolve either with time or typical antibiotics. If bacterial conjunctivitis is suspected, but no response to topical antibiotics is seen, swabs for bacterial culture should be taken and tested. Viral culture may be appropriate in epidemic case clusters. A patch test is used to identify the causative allergen in allergic conjunctivitis. Although conjunctival scrapes for cytology can be useful in detecting chlamydial and fungal infections, alle
The most effective prevention is good hygiene, especially avoiding rubbing the eyes with infected hands. Vaccination against adenovirus, Haemophilus influenzae, pneumococcus, and Neisseria meningitidis is also effective. Povidone-iodine eye solution has been found to prevent neonatal conjunctivitis. It is becoming more commonly used globally because of its low cost.
Conjunctivitis resolves in 65% of cases without treatment, within 2–5 days. The prescription of antibiotics is not necessary in most cases.
More than 30 different bacteria, viruses, and parasites can be transmitted through sexual activity. Bacterial STIs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Viral STIs include genital herpes, HIV/AIDS, and genital warts. Parasitic STIs include trichomoniasis. While usually spread by sex, some STIs can be spread by non-sexual contact with donor tissue, blood, breastfeeding, or during childbirth. STI diagnostic tests are usually easily available in the developed world, but they are often unavail
bacterial infection Any disease caused by bacteria. Bacteria exist in a variety of relationships with the human body. They colonize body surfaces and provide benefits, e.g., by limiting the growth of pathogens and by producing vitamins for absorption (in a symbiotic relationship).
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