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  1. Beja language - Wikipedia › wiki › Beja_language

    Beja (Bidhaawyeet) is an Afroasiatic language of the Cushitic branch spoken on the western coast of the Red Sea by the Beja people. Its speakers number around one to two million individuals, and inhabit parts of Egypt , Sudan and Eritrea .

  2. Beja language - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia › wiki › Beja_language

    Beja is a Cushitic language. It is spoken on the coast of the Red Sea in Sudan, Eritrea and Egypt. Around one million people speak the language. It is the only language of the North Cushitic branch still spoken. References

  3. Beja people - Wikipedia › wiki › Beja_people

    The Beja people are an ethnic Cushitic-language speaking people inhabiting Sudan, Egypt, and Eritrea. In recent history, they have lived primarily in the Eastern Desert. They number around 1,237,000 people. The majority of Beja people speak the Beja language as a mother tongue, which belongs to the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic family. In Eritrea and southeastern Sudan, many members of the Beni Amer grouping speak Tigre. While many secondary sources identify the Ababda as an Arabic-speakin

    • 1,099,000
    • 2,371,000
    • 127,000
  4. Talk:Beja language - Wikipedia › wiki › Talk:Beja_language
    • Untitled
    • External Links Modified
    • Wedekind & Musa
    • Citation Style
    • Jʤdʒɟ…
    • Phonological Table Word Breaks
    • Addressing Issues of Wp:Copywithin

    the article needs to answer the question: is there an ethnic group name for the people who speak the beja language? Gringo30023:42, 21 November 2005 (UTC) 1. Answer is the Beja people.

    Hello fellow Wikipedians, I have just modified 2 external links on Beja language. Please take a moment to review my edit. If you have any questions, or need the bot to ignore the links, or the page altogether, please visit this simple FaQfor additional information. I made the following changes: 1. Added archive to 2. Added archive to When you have finished reviewing my changes, please set the checked parameter below to true or failed to let others know (documentation at {{Sourcecheck}}). As of February 2018, "External links modified" talk page sections are no longer generated or monitored by InternetArchiveBot. No special action is required regarding these talk page notices, other than regular verificatio...

    Pathawi, please leave any other comments you may have here on the relevant talk page. I was able to independently confirm Cohen's 20% cognate ratio between Beja and the other Cushitic languages. I also found the open access link you alluded to at the bottom of the Wedekind & Musa url. However, it doesn't appear to mention either the Arabic transliteration or Ethnologue . Other than that, all seems okay. Soupforone (talk) 06:56, 12 November 2017 (UTC) The Wedekind, Wedekind, and Musa book does not mention Ethnologue, nor did I ever say that it did: My comments to you on Ethnologue referenced a review in the journal Language, for which I provided a link and direct quotation from the abstract. Ethnologue does not provide the Arabic script version of the name of the language that you continue to reintroduce… I think this may come from Omniglot. This name is incorrect: It's not just an alternative. You can find the name of the language represented in Arabic script in dialogues on pages 1...

    The citations for this article are a bit messy—in no small part my fault. I'd like to clean this up. I don't have a very strong opinion, but my inclination is to shift it to list-defined references, then do short citations throughout. Any thoughts from those who are watching this? Soupforone, you & I have had a couple back-&-forths, recently, which makes me think you might be the person most likely to have an opinion. What do you think?Pathawi (talk) 17:05, 21 November 2017 (UTC) WP:CITETYPE indicates that full citations are the most commonly used citation method, so we should probably go with that. Soupforone (talk) 04:55, 22 November 2017 (UTC) I'm not out-&-out opposed to long refs, but given that some are repeated, I thought short refs might make it easier to read.Pathawi (talk) 06:10, 22 November 2017 (UTC) That would perhaps be feasible for those phrases. Soupforone (talk) 16:16, 22 November 2017 (UTC) All right. Nearly three years later, I'm finally getting started on this. B...

    I'm going to lean a little bit on personal knowledge of Beja, here, as a researcher & speaker of the language. I'm not trying to incorporate anything unpublished into the article, however: The phoneme that contemporary Latin Beja orthography represents as "j" is an odd one. It is one of the phonemes that Beja-speakers identify as Arabic, and it does occur most frequently in loanwords. However, it also occurs in Beja words that have no clear Arabic etymon, & it often appears as a development out of an alveolar or retroflex stop followed by /i/. (i.e., [coronal][+voice] → /ʤ/ /_i, so diik often becomes jiik; dhiw'areeb for some people becomes jiw'areeb) It is unquestionably phonemic, & it is a singlephoneme. For broad transcription principles, it should be represented by a single sign. It's for cases like this that the IPA introduced a ʤ ligature for dʒ: A phoneme should not appear to be a cluster. &, in fact, Vanhove uses this ligature to represent this phoneme in her work—not the tw...

    The reason why I support word breaks is because they organize the chart better, and gets rid of the excess space. It just makes it look nicer Fdom5997 (talk) 21:31, 18 June 2020 (UTC) 1. They also introduce an element of disorder. This is the sort of thing I might want to do for my own print publication in which I would want to exert the greatest degree of control over the appearance & in which readers would not have digital access to the text. In a digital format, however, it means that "labio- dental" won't match a search for "labiodental". Pathawi (talk) 21:38, 18 June 2020 (UTC)

    Pathawi Hello, I tried to make edits, that were deleted. Is there any way I could add the text without it getting deleted? I wish to address any issue that is causing the problem. Thank you. — Preceding unsigned comment added by 2A00:23C8:4D00:A600:39A8:4617:A24:423D (talk) 22:09, 11 August 2020 (UTC) 1. Well, I don't know. Let me tell you what I think the problems are, & then if you still think that something like that text should be there, we can see if we can work out a solution that accommodates whatever variation there is in perspective. 2. Here's what I think you want to do: You want to add a rather lengthy paragraph that goes thru the categorisations proposed by Joseph Halévy, Leo Reinisch, Martino Moreno, Enrico Cerulli, Archibald Tucker, Andrzej Zaborski, Robert Hetzron, Anthony Appleyard, Marcello Lamberti, and Didier Morin. This seems to be mostly a summary of a portion of an article by Martine Vanhove. 3. I have a few objections to this: 3.1. I think that the wheat gets...

  5. Beja - Wikipedia › wiki › Beja

    Beja people, an ethnic group in northeast Africa Blemmyes, historical name for the people Beja language, language spoken by the Beja people Beja Congress, a group formed primarily of Beja opposing the government of Sudan

  6. Beja language - Wikipedia › wiki › Beja_language

    Beja language ek bhasa hae. Ii article ek chhota panna hae. Aap iske lamba karke Wikipedia ke madat kare saktaa hae. Ii panna ke 22 Saptambar 2013, ke 05:21 baje ...

  7. Beja, Portugal - Wikipedia › wiki › Beja,_Portugal

    Beja ( Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈbɛʒɐ] ( listen)) is a city and a municipality in the Alentejo region, Portugal. The population in 2011 was 35,854, in an area of 1,146.44 km 2 (442.64 sq mi). The city proper had a population of 21,658 in 2001. Beja. Municipality. Flag.

    • 1,146.44 km² (442.64 sq mi)
    • Beja
  8. Beja language - The Reader Wiki, Reader View of Wikipedia › en › Beja_language
    • Name
    • Classification
    • History
    • Phonology
    • Orthography
    • Grammar
    • Lexicon
    • Literature

    The name Beja, derived from Arabic: بجا‎, romanized: bijā, is most common in English-language literature. Native speakers use the term Bidhaawyeet (indefinite) or Tubdhaawi(definite).

    Beja is held by most linguists to be part of the Cushitic branch of the Afroasiatic family, constituting the only member of the Northern Cushitic subgroup. As such, Beja contains a number of linguistic innovations that are unique to it, as is also the situation with the other subgroups of Cushitic (e.g. idiosyncratic features in Agawor Central Cushitic). The characteristics of Beja that differ from those of other Cushitic languages are likewise generally acknowledged as normal branch variation.

    Some linguists and paleographers believe that they have uncovered evidence of an earlier stage of Beja, referred to in different publications as "Old Bedauye" or "Old Beja." Helmut Satzinger has identified the names found on several third century CE ostraca (potsherds) from the Eastern Desert as likely Blemmye, representing a form of Old Beja. He also identifies several epigraphic texts from the fifth and sixth centuries as representing a later form of the same language. Nubiologist Gerald Browne, Egyptologist Helmut Satzinger, and Cushiticist Klaus Wedekind believe that an ostracon discovered in a monastery in Saqqarah also represents the Old Beja language. Browne and Wedekind have identified the text as a translation of Psalm 30.

    Nasals other than /m/ and /n/ are positional variants of /n/. The consonants /χ/ and /ɣ/ only appear in Arabic loanwords in some speakers' speech; in others', they are replaced by /k/ or /h/ and /g/. Some speakers replace /z/ in Arabic loanwords with /d/. Beja has the five vowels /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/. /e/ and /o/ only appear long, while /a/, /i/, and /u/ have long and short variants. Beja has pitch accent.

    Both Roman and Arabic script have been used to write Beja. The Roman orthography below is that used by the Eritrean government and was used in a literacy program at Red Sea University in Port Sudanfrom 2010–2013. Three Arabic orthographies have seen limited use: The first below was that used by the now defunct Website Sakanab; the second was devised by Muhammad Adaroob Muhammad and used in his translation of E.M. Roper's Beja lexicon; the third was devised by Mahmud Ahmad Abu Bikr Ooriib, and was employed briefly at Red Sea University in 2019. No system of writing has gained wide support. The only system to have been employed in publications by more than one writer is the Latin script. In the Roman orthography, the vowels are written with the letters corresponding to the IPA symbols (i.e., 'a', 'e', 'i', 'o', 'u'). Long vowels are written with doubled signs. As /e/ and /o/ cannot be short vowels, they only appear as 'ee' and 'oo', respectively. The single 'e' sign, however, does hav...

    Nouns, Articles, and Adjectives

    Beja nouns and adjectives have two genders: masculine and feminine, two numbers: singular and plural, two cases: nominative and oblique, and may be definite, indefinite, or in construct state.Gender, case, and definiteness are not marked on the noun itself, but on clitics and affixes. Singular-plural pairs in Beja are unpredictable. Plurals may be formed by: 1. the addition of a suffix -a to the singular stem: gaw 'house', gawaab 'houses' (the final -b is an indefinite suffix) 2. the shorteni...


    Clauses may be composed of two noun phrases or a noun phrase and a predicative adjective followed by a copular clitic. The copula agrees in person, gender, and number with the copula complement (the second term), but the first- and third-person forms are identical. The copular subject will be in the nominative case, the copular complement in the oblique. Oblique -b become -w before -wa. Copular complements that end in a vowel will employ an epenthetic ybetween the final vowel and any vowel-in...


    Beja verbs have two different types, first noted by Almkvist: "strong verbs," which conjugate with both prefixes and suffixes and have several principal parts; and "weak verbs," which conjugate with suffixes only and which have a fixed root. Verbs conjugate for a number of tense, aspect, modality, and polarityvariations, which have been given different names by different linguists: (Roper analyzes additional subjunctive forms where Wedekind, Wedekind, and Musa, and Vanhove see a conditional p...

    Through lexicostatistical analysis, David Cohen (1988) observed that Beja shared a basic vocabulary of around 20% with the East Cushitic Afar and Somali languages and the Central Cushitic Agaw languages, which are among its most geographically near Afroasiatic languages. This was analogous to the percentage of common lexical terms that was calculated for certain other Cushitic languages, such as Afar and Oromo. Václav Blažek (1997) conducted a more comprehensive glottochronological examination of languages and data. He identified a markedly close ratio of 40% cognates between Beja and Proto-East Cushitic as well as a cognate percentage of approximately 20% between Beja and Central Cushitic, similar to that found by Cohen. A fairly large portion of Beja vocabulary is borrowed from Arabic. In Eritrea and Sudan, some terms are instead Tigre loanwords.Andrzej Zaborski has noted close parallels between Beja and Egyptian vocabulary. The only independent Beja dictionary yet printed is Leo...

    Beja has an extensive oral tradition, including multiple poetic genres. A well-known epic is the story of the hero Mhamuud Oofaash, portions of which have appeared in various publications by Klaus Wedekind. An edition appears in Mahmud Mohammed Ahmed's Oomraay, published in Asmara. In the 1960s and '70s, the Beja intellectual Muhammed Adarob Ohaj collected oral recordings of poetic and narrative material which are in the University of Khartoum Institute of African and Asian Studies Sound Archives. Didier Morin and Mohamed-Tahir Hamid Ahmed have used these, in addition to their own collections, for multiple academic publications in French on Beja poetics. Red Sea Universityand the NGO Uhaashoon worked with oral story-tellers to produce a collection of 41 short readers and a longer collection of three short stories in Beja between 2010 and 2013.

  9. Ababda people - Wikipedia › wiki › Ababda_people

    The Ababda are an ethnic group from eastern Egypt and the Sudan. Historically, most were nomads living in the area between the Nile and the Red Sea, with some settling along the trade route linking Korosko with Abu Hamad. Numerous traveler accounts from the nineteenth century report that some Ababda at that time still spoke Beja or a language of their own, hence many secondary sources consider the Ababda to be a Beja subtribe. Most Ababda now speak Arabic and identify as an Arab tribe from the H

  10. Medjay - Wikipedia › wiki › Medjay

    Linguistic evidence indicates that the Medjay spoke an ancient Cushitic language related to the Cushitic Beja language and that the Blemmyes were a subdivision of the Medjay. Rilly (2019) mentions historical records of a powerful Cushitic speaking group which controlled Lower Nubia and some cities in Upper Egypt .

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