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  1. County (United States) - Wikipedia › wiki › County_(United_States)

    County government Organization. The structure and powers of a county government may be defined by the general law of the state or by a charter specific to that county. States may allow only general-law counties, only charter counties, or both.

  2. County government in Arkansas - Wikipedia › wiki › County_government_in_Arkansas

    County government in Arkansas is a political subdivision of the state established for a more convenient administration of justice and for purposes of providing services for the state by the Constitution of Arkansas and the Arkansas General Assembly through the Arkansas Code. In Arkansas, counties have no inherent authority, only power given to them by the state government. This means the county executive, the county judge, and legislative body, the quorum court, have limited power compared to ot

  3. Local government - Wikipedia › wiki › County_government
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    Local government traditionally had limited power in Egypt's highly centralized state. Under the central government were twenty-six governorates (sing., muhafazah; pl., muhafazat). These were subdivided into districts (sing., markaz; pl., marakaz) and villages (sing., qaryah; pl., qura) or towns. At each level, there was a governing structure that combined representative councils and government-appointed executive organs headed by governors, district officers, and mayors, respectively. Governo...


    In recent years, Mali has undertaken an ambitious decentralization program, which involves the capital district of Bamako, seven regions subdivided into 46 cercles, and 682 rural community districts (communes). The state retains an advisory role in administrative and fiscal matters, and it provides technical support, coordination, and legal recourse to these levels. Opportunities for direct political participation, and increased local responsibility for development have been improved.[citatio...


    Nigeria as a federal republic operates three tiers of government: federal (or central), states and local government. The country's constitution provides for each local government (which exists in a single tier countrywide), and its development areas and autonomous communities created by individual state legislation to have democratically elected local government heads. There is a ministry (or bureau) of local government and chieftaincy affairs in each state charged with the responsibility of...


    Afghanistan was traditionally divided into provinces governed by centrally appointed governors with considerable autonomy in local affairs. There are currently 34 provinces. During the Soviet occupation and the development of country-wide resistance, local areas came increasingly under the control of mujaheddin groups that were largely independent of any higher authority; local commanders, in some instances, asserted a measure of independence also from the mujaheddin leadership in Pakistan, e...


    Armenia is subdivided into eleven administrative divisions. Of these, ten are provinces, known as marzer (մարզեր) or in the singular form marz (մարզ) in Armenian.


    Azerbaijanis administratively divided into the following subdivisions: 1. 59 districts (rayonlar; sing.– rayon), 2. 11 cities (şəhərlər; sing.– şəhər), 3. 1 autonomous republic (muxtar respublika), which itself contains: 3.1. 7 districts 3.2. 1 city The rayons are further divided into municipalities (Bələdiyyə).


    Albaniahas 3 levels of local government : 1. 12 administrative counties (Albanian: qark or prefekturë). 2. 36 districts (Albanian: rreth). 3. 373 municipalities (Albanian: bashki or komunë), 72 of which have city status (Albanian: qytet). There are overall 2980 villages/communities (Albanian: fshat) in all Albania. Each district has its council which is composed of a number of municipalities. The municipalities are the first level of local governance, responsible for local needs and law enfor...


    Andorra is formed by seven parishes (parròquies, singular – parròquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Escaldes-Engordany, Ordino, Sant Julià de Lòria. Some parishes have a further territorial subdivision. Ordino, La Massana and Sant Julià de Lòria are subdivided into quarts (quarters), while Canillo is subdivided into 10 veïnats (neighborhoods). Those mostly coincide with villages, which are found in all parishes. Each parish has its own elected mayor who is the nominal head...


    At the top level of administration, Belarus is divided into six regions and the city of Minsk, which has a special status being the capital of Belarus. Minsk is also the capital of Minsk Region. At the second level, the regions are divided into raions("districts").


    Canada has a federal system with three orders of government. The largest is the federal government, followed by the provincial and local governments.Municipal governments are separately elected. They must follow laws and guidelines as set out by their province, but are allowed to pass additional by-laws and acts unique to them.


    Mexico is a Federal Republic made up by 31 states and a federal district. Each state is divided in municipios, while the federal district is divided in sixteen delegaciones. Twenty-nine states of Mexico were created as administrative divisions by the constitution of 1917, which grants them those powers not expressly vested in the federal government; Mexico's two remaining territories, Baja California Sur and Quintana Roo, achieved statehood on 9 October 1974, raising the total to 31. Each sta...

    United States

    Local government in the United States refers to governmental jurisdictions below the level of the state. Most states have at least two tiers of local government: counties and municipalities. In some states, counties are divided into townships. There are several different types of jurisdictions at the municipal level, including the city, town, parish, borough, village, reservations and boundaries. The types and nature of these municipal entities varies from state to state.


    Local government is the third type of government in Australia, after Federal and State.

    New Zealand

    New Zealand has a local government system comprising two complementary sets of local authorities—regional councils and territorial authorities. There are 78 local authorities consisting of: 1. 11 regional councils, which cover much of New Zealand’s land area, and 2. 67 territorial authorities (comprising 53 district councils, 12 city councilsand 2 other councils). Six of the territorial authorities are unitary authorities, which also have the powers of a regional council. They are Auckland Co...


    Argentina is a federation of 23 provinces and the federal capital of Buenos Aires. During the 19th century there was a bitter struggle between Buenos Aires and the interior provinces, and there has long been an element of tension regarding the division of powers between the central government and provincial bodies. The federal government retains control over such matters as the regulation of commerce, customs collections, currency, civil or commercial codes, or the appointment of foreign agen...


    Brazil is a federation consisting of 27 federative units: 26 states and one Federal District. Government exists at three levels: federal, state, and municipal. The states are subdivided into 5,570 municipalities, while the Federal District has no municipalities (divided into administrative regionsinstead) and has powers of both a state and a municipality.. Municipal government consists of an executive branch headed by a mayor (Prefeito/Prefeita), and a legislative branch (Câmara Muncipal), se...


    Paraguay is divided into 17 departments, which are subdivided into districts, which, in turn, comprise municipalities (the minimum requirement for a municipality is 3,000 persons) and rural districts (partidos). A governor, elected by popular vote, runs each department. Municipal government is exercised through a municipal board, chosen by direct election, and an executive department. In the principal cities and capitals, the executive department is headed by a mayor appointed by the minister...

    Kemp, Roger L. Managing America's Cities: A Handbook for Local Government Productivity, McFarland and Co., Jefferson, NC, USA, and London, Eng., UK 1998 (ISBN 0-7864-0408-6).
    Kemp, Roger L. Model Government Charters: A City, County, Regional, State, and Federal Handbook, McFarland and Co., Jefferson, NC, USA, and London, Eng., UK, 2003 (ISBN 978-0-7864-3154-0).
    Kemp, Roger L. Forms of Local Government: A Handbook on City, County and Regional Options, McFarland and Co., Jefferson, NC, USA, and London, Eng., UK, 2007 (ISBN 978-0-7864-3100-7).
    Lockner, Allyn O. Steps to Local Government Reform: A Guide to Tailoring Local Government Reforms to Fit Regional Governance Communities in Democracies. iUniverse, Bloomington, Indiana, USA, 2013 (...
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  5. Ohio county government - Wikipedia › wiki › Ohio_county_government
    • Overview
    • Officials
    • Elections
    • County courts

    Ohio county government is the structure of official managerial and legal bodies of the counties of Ohio, USA. It is marked by a loose organization and a diffusion of power, the basic framework not having been changed since the nineteenth century. The Ohio Constitution allows counties to set up a charter government as many cities and villages do, but only Summit and Cuyahoga counties have done so. Counties operating under a constitutional government do not possess home rule powers and can do only

    Eighty-six of Ohio's 88 counties have the following elected officials as provided by statute: 1. Three county commissioners: Control budget; approve zoning; approve annexations to cities and villages; set overall policy; oversee departments under their control 2. County auditor: Values property for taxation; issues dog, kennel, and cigarette licenses; issues licenses for retailers for sales tax purposes; inspects scales, fuel pumps, etc., used in commerce to see that they are accurate; maintains

    Elections are administered in each county by a four-member board of elections which consists of two Republicans and two Democrats appointed by the Ohio Secretary of State at the recommendation of each county party. The board employs a director, who must be of the opposing political party of the chairman of the board of elections, and a deputy director, who must be of the political party of the chairman of the board.

    Every county has a court of common pleas, which is the court of first instance for felonies and certain high-value civil cases. In many counties there are also municipal courts which operate in a defined territory and handle misdemeanors such as traffic tickets and smaller civil matters. Some counties also have one or more county courts, which handle the same cases as a municipal court but which occur outside the jurisdiction of a municipal court. In counties with large populations, the jurisdic

  6. Local government in the United States - Wikipedia › wiki › Local_government_in_the
    • History
    • Types
    • Councils Or Associations of Governments
    • Dillon's Rule
    • Structure
    • Indian Reservations
    • Census of Local Government
    • Examples in Individual States
    • See Also
    • Further Reading

    When North America was colonized by Europeans from the 17th century onward, there was initially little control from governments back in Europe. Many settlements began as shareholder or stockholder business enterprises, and while the king of Britain had technical sovereignty, in most instances "full governmental authority was vested in the company itself."Settlers had to fend for themselves; compact towns sprung up based as legal corporations in what has been described as "pure democracy": Propertied men voted; in no colonies was there universal suffrage. The founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629 by a group of Puritans led by John Winthrop came with the understanding that the enterprise was to be "based in the new world rather than in London." The notion of self-government became accepted in the colonies, although it wasn't totally free from challenges; in the 1670s, the Lords of Trade and Plantations(a royal committee regulating mercantile trade in the colonies) tried to...

    The Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution makes local government a matter of state rather than federal law, with special cases for territories and the District of Columbia. As a result, the states have adopted a wide variety of systems of local government. The United States Census Bureauconducts the Census of Governments every five years to compile statistics on government organization, public employment, and government finances. The categories of local government established in this Census of Governments is a convenient basis for understanding local government in the United States. The categories are as follows: 1. County Governments 2. Town or Township Governments 3. Municipal Governments 4. Special-Purpose Local Governments

    It is common for residents of major U.S. metropolitan areas to live under six or more layers of special districts as well as a town or city, and a county or township. In turn, a typical metro area often consists of several counties, several dozen towns or cities, and a hundred (or more) special districts. In one state, California, the fragmentation problem became so bad that in 1963 the California Legislature created Local Agency Formation Commissions in 57 of the state's 58 counties; that is, government agencies to supervise the orderly formation and development of other government agencies. One effect of all this complexity is that victims of government negligence occasionally sue the wrong entity and do not realize their error until the statute of limitationshas run against them. Because efforts at direct consolidation have proven futile, U.S. local government entities often form "councils of governments", "metropolitan regional councils", or "associations of governments". These...

    Unlike the relationship of federalism that exists between the U.S. government and the states (in which power is shared), municipal governments have no power except what is granted to them by their states. This legal doctrine, called Dillon's Rule, was established by Judge John Forrest Dillon in 1872 and upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in Hunter v. Pittsburgh, 207 U.S. 161 (1907), which upheld the power of Pennsylvania to consolidate the city of Allegheny into the city of Pittsburgh, despite the wishes of the majority of Allegheny residents. In effect, state governments can place whatever restrictions they choose on their municipalities (including merging municipalities, controlling them directly, or abolishing them outright), as long as such rules don't violate the state's constitution. However, Dillon's Rule does not apply in all states of the United States, because some state constitutions provide specific rights for municipalities and counties. State constitutions which allow co...

    The nature of both county and municipal government varies not only between states, but also between different counties and municipalities within them. Local voters are generally free to choose the basic framework of government from a selection established by state law. In most cases both counties and municipalities have a governing council, governing in conjunction with a mayor or president. Alternatively, the institution may be of the council–manager government form, run by a city manager under direction of the city council. In the past the municipal commissionwas also common. Across the US, local governments employ more than ten million people. The ICMA has classified local governments into five common forms: mayor–council, council–manager, commission, town meeting, and representative town meeting.

    While their territory nominally falls within the boundaries of individual states, Indian reservations actually function outside of state control. The reservation is usually controlled by an elected tribal councilwhich provides local services.

    A census of all local governments in the country is performed every 5 years by the United States Census Bureau, in accordance with 13 USC 161. * note: Municipalities are any incorporated places, such as cities, towns, villages, boroughs, etc. ** note: New England towns and towns in New York and Wisconsin are classified as civil townshipsfor census purposes.

    The following sections provide details of the operation of local government in a selection of states, by way of example of the variety that exists across the country.

    Jon C. Teaford (2009). "Local Government". In Michael Kazin (ed.). Princeton Encyclopedia of American Political History. Princeton University Press. pp. 488?–491. ISBN 978-1-4008-3356-6.
    Lockner, Allyn O. "Steps to Local Government Reform: A Guide to Tailoring Local Government Reforms to Fit Regional Governance Communities in Democracies". Bloomington,IN: iUniverse, Inc., 2013. (IS...
    Anzia, Sarah. 2021. "Party and Ideology in American Local Government: An Appraisal." Annual Review of Political Science.
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  7. Government of Miami-Dade County - Wikipedia › Government_of_Miami-Dade_County
    • Summary
    • History
    • Overview
    • Organization
    • Law

    The Government of Miami-Dade County is defined and authorized under the Constitution of Florida, Florida law, and the Home Rule Charter of Miami-Dade County. Since its formation in 1957, Miami-Dade County, Florida has had a two-tier system of government. Under this system, Miami-Dade comprises a large unincorporated area and 34 incorporated areas or municipalities. Each municipality has its own government and provides such city-type services as police and zoning protection.

    State voters amended the State of Florida's Constitution in 1956 to allow for a Home Rule Charter. Dade County was granted the power to create commission districts, pass ordinances, create penalties, levy and collect taxes to support a centralized metropolitan form of government. The Board of County Commissioners may create municipalities, special taxing districts and other boards or authorities as needed. The Home Rule Charter for Miami-Dade County was adopted by referendum on May 21, 1957. Thi

    Unlike a consolidated city-county, where the city and county governments merge into a single entity, these two entities remain separate. Instead there are two "tiers", or levels, of government: city and county. There are 34 municipalities in the county, the City of Miami being the largest. Cities are the "lower tier" of local government, providing police and fire protection, zoning and code enforcement, and other typical city services within their jurisdiction. These services are paid for by cit

    An Executive Mayor and the Miami-Dade Board of County Commissioners govern the County. The County's main administrative offices are located in the Stephen P. Clark Center at 111 NW 1ST Street in downtown Miami.

    The Charter includes a Citizens Bill of Rights with provisions for: convenient access, truth in government, access to public records, the right to be heard, the right to timely notices, right to public hearing, no unreasonable postponements, prompt notice of actions and reasons, financial disclosure by candidates and other public officials, and a Commission on Ethics and the Public Trust.

  8. Kinmen County Government - Wikipedia › wiki › Kinmen_County_Government

    Kinmen County Government. Yang Cheng-wu, the incumbent Magistrate of Kinmen County. The Kinmen County Government ( Chinese: 金門縣政府; pinyin: Jīnmén Xiàn Zhèngfǔ) is the local government of the Republic of China that governs Kinmen County .

  9. County government in Nebraska - Simple English Wikipedia, the ... › wiki › County_government_in

    County government in Nebraska is organized in two ways: Township counties: the county is divided into townships and governed by a 7-member board of supervisors . 27 counties are governed this way. Commissioner counties: the county is governed by a 3- or 5-member board of commissioners, but is not divided into organized townships. 66 counties are governed in this way.

  10. 花蓮縣政府 - 维基百科,自由的百科全书 › wiki › 花蓮縣政府

    Hualien County Government(英語) 中華民國政府機構: 基本資訊; 授權法源: 地方制度法、花蓮縣政府組織自治條例: 主要官員; 縣長: 徐榛蔚: 副縣長: 顏新章(原任花蓮縣政府秘書長) 秘書長: 張逸華(代理) 副秘書長: 待補: 組織編制; 內部單位: 14處: 附屬機關: 6個所屬一 ...

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