Ethiopia was the first independent African member of the League of Nations and the United Nations. The country was occupied by Italy in 1936 and became Italian Ethiopia as part of Italian East Africa, until it was liberated during World War II 5 years later in 1941.
The word "Ethiopia" is from the Greek word Αἰθιοπία (IPA: /ˌaitʰioˈpia/) meaning sun light burned face. It is the most populous landlocked country in the world. It lost its Red Sea ports when Eritrea gained independence in 1993. Part of a series on the
Ethiopia experienced famine in 1984 that killed one million people and civil war that resulted in the fall of the Derg in 1991. This resulted in the establishment of the Federal Democratic Republic under Meles Zenawi. Ethiopia remains impoverished, but its economy has become one of the world's fastest-growing.
- Physical features
- Flora and fauna
- Natural resources and land use
Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Eritrea to the north, Djibouti and Somalia to the east, Sudan and South Sudan to the west, and Kenya to the south. Ethiopia has a high central plateau that varies from 1,290 to 3,000 m above sea level, with the highest mountain reaching 4,533 m. Elevation is generally highest just before the point of descent to the Great Rift Valley, which splits the plateau diagonally. A number of rivers cross the plateau; notably the Blue Nile rising
Between the valley of the Upper Nile and Ethiopia's border with Sudan and South Sudan is a region of elevated plateaus from which rise the various tablelands and mountains that constitute the Ethiopian Highlands. On nearly every side, the walls of the plateaus rise abruptly from
Most of the Ethiopian uplands have a decided slope to the northwest, so that nearly all the large rivers flow in that direction to the Nile, comprising some 85% of its water. Such are the Tekezé River in the north, the Abay in the center, and the Sobat in the south, and ...
The East African tableland is continued into Ethiopia. A pioneering study of the geology of Ethiopia was W. T. Blanford's work in 1870. More recent work has focused on the Afar Depression, due to its importance as one of two places on Earth where a mid-ocean ridge can be studied on land. The following formations are represented: Sedimentary and metamorphic Recent: Coral, alluvium, sand Tertiary: Limestones of Harrar Jurassic: Antalo Limestones Triassic: Adigrat Sandstones Archaean: Gneisses, sch
The climate of Ethiopia and its dependent territories varies greatly. It is temperate on the plateau and hot in the lowlands. The country lies wholly within the tropics, but its nearness to the equator is counterbalanced by the elevation of the land. At Addis Ababa, which ranges from 2,200 to 2,600 m, maximum temperature is 26 °C and minimum 4 °C. The weather is usually sunny and dry, but the short rains occur from February to April and the large rains from mid-June to mid-September. Over ...
As in a day's journey the traveller may pass from tropical to almost Alpine conditions of climate, so great also is the range of the flora and fauna. In the valleys and lowlands the vegetation is dense, but the general appearance of the plateaus is of a comparatively bare country
In addition to the domestic animals enumerated below the fauna is very varied. Elephant can be found in certain low-lying districts, especially in the Sobat valley. The hippopotamus and crocodile inhabit the larger rivers flowing west, but are not found in the Hawash, in which, h
Ethiopia has small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, and natural gas. It has extensive hydropower potential. Of the total land area, about 20 percent is under cultivation, although the amount of potentially arable land is larger. Only about 10 to 15 percent of the land area is presently covered by forest as a result of rapid deforestation during the last 30 years. Of the remainder, a large portion is used as pasturage. Some land is too rugged, dry, or infertile for agriculture or any o
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- Geography of Ethiopia
- Government and politics of Ethiopia
- History of Ethiopia
- Culture of Ethiopia
Ethiopia is a landlocked sovereign country located in the Horn of Africa. Ethiopia is bordered by Eritrea to the north, Sudan to the west, South Sudan to the south-west, Kenya to the south, Somalia to the east and Djibouti to the north-east. Ethiopia is one of the oldest countries in the world and Africa's second-most populous nation. Ethiopia has yielded some of humanity's oldest traces, making the area important in the history of human evolution. Recent studies claim that the vicinity of prese
Geography of Ethiopia 1. Ethiopia is: a landlocked country 2. Location: Eastern Hemisphere and Northern Hemisphere Africa North Africa East Africa Horn of Africa Time zone: East Africa Time Extreme points of Ethiopia High: Ras Dejen 4,550 m Low: Denakil Depression −125 m Land boundaries: 5,328 km Sudan 723 km South Sudan 883 km Somalia 1,600 km Eritrea 912 km Kenya 861 km Djibouti 349 km
Government of Ethiopia Executive branch of the government of EthiopiaEdit Head of state - President of Ethiopia, Mulatu Teshome Head of government - Prime Minister of Ethiopia, Hailemariam Desalegn Council of Ministers Prime Minister of Ethiopia - Hailemariam Desalegn Deputy Prim
Law of Ethiopia 1. Constitution of Ethiopia 2. Human rights in Ethiopia LGBT rights in Ethiopia 3. Child marriage in Ethiopia 4. Law enforcement in Ethiopia
Military of Ethiopia 1. Command Commander-in-chief: Ministry of Defence of Ethiopia 2. Forces Army of Ethiopia Navy of Ethiopia Air Force of Ethiopia 3. Military history of Ethiopia
History of Ethiopia 1. Current events of Ethiopia 2. Military history of Ethiopia
Culture of Ethiopia 1. Architecture of Ethiopia 2. Cuisine of Ethiopia List of Ethiopian dishes 3. Languages of Ethiopia 4. Media in Ethiopia 5. National symbols of Ethiopia Coat of arms of Ethiopia Flag of Ethiopia National anthem of Ethiopia 6. People of Ethiopia 7. Prostitution in Ethiopia 8. Public holidays in Ethiopia 9. Religion in Ethiopia Christianity in Ethiopia Hinduism in Ethiopia Islam in Ethiopia Judaism in Ethiopia 10. World Heritage Sites in Ethiopia
- Genetic studies
Ethiopia's population is highly diverse with different languages and ethnic groups. Most of its people speak an Ethiosemitic or Cushitic language which are both part of the Afroasiatic language family, while others speak Nilo-Saharan languages. The Oromo, Amhara, Somali and Tigrayans make up more than three-quarters of the population, but there are more than 80 different ethnic groups within Ethiopia. Some of these have as few as 10,000 members. English is the most widely spoken foreign language
According to the 2007 Ethiopian census and the CIA World Fact Book, the largest first languages are: Oromo 24,929,567 speakers or 33.8% of the total population; Amharic 21,631,370 or 29.3%; Somali 4,609,274 or 6.2%; Tigrinya 4,324,476 or 5.9%; Sidamo 4,981,471 or 4%; Wolaytta 1,627,784 or 2.2%; Gurage 1,481,783 or 2%; and Afar 1,281,278 or 1.7%. Widely-spoken foreign languages include Arabic, English, and Italian.
According to the CIA Factbook the religious demography of Ethiopia is as follows; Ethiopian Orthodox 43.8%, Muslim 31.3%, Protestant 22.8%, Catholic 0.7%, traditional 0.6%, and other 0.8%.
The largest diaspora community is found in the United States. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 250,000 Ethiopian immigrants lived in the United States as of 2008. An additional 30,000 U.S.-born citizens reported Ethiopian ancestry. According to Aaron Matteo Terrazas, "if the descendants of Ethiopian-born migrants are included, the estimates range upwards of 460,000 in the United States." A large Ethiopian community is also found in Israel, where Ethiopians make up almost 1.9% of the populati
Studies of Ethiopians belonging to Semitic and Cushitic ethnic groups mostly from the north of the country estimate approximately 40% of their autosomal ancestry to be derived from an ancient non-African back-migration from the near East, and about 60% to be of local native Afric
A composite look at most YDNA studies done so far reveals that, out of a total of 459 males sampled from Ethiopia, approximately 58% of Y-chromosome haplotypes were found to belong to Haplogroup E, of which 71% were characterized by one of its further downstream sub lineage known
The maternal ancestry of Ethiopians is similarly diverse. About half of Ethiopians belongs to mtdna Haplogroups L0, L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, or L6. These haplogroups are generally confined to the African continent. They also originated either in Ethiopia or very near. The other portio
The culture of Ethiopia is diverse and generally structured along ethnolinguistic lines. The country's Afro-Asiatic-speaking majority adhere to an amalgamation of traditions that were developed independently and through interaction with neighboring and far away civilizations, including other parts of Northeast Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, India, and Italy. By contrast, the nation's Nilotic communities and other ethnolinguistic minorities tend to practice customs more closely linked with South
The music of Ethiopia is extremely diverse, with each of the country's ethnic groups being associated with unique sounds. Some forms of traditional music are strongly influenced by folk music from elsewhere in the Horn of Africa, especially Somalia. In southeastern Ethiopia, in Wollo, a Muslim musical form called manzuma developed in 1907. Sung in Amharic and oromo most notably in Dire Dawa, Harar and Jimma where Ethiopian muslims reside. In the Ethiopian Highlands, traditional secular music is
There are many different types of Ethiopian dance, which were first recorded in 1964 by Hungarians who studied Ethiopian dances found in Ethiopian tribes and villages. About one hundred and fifty variations of dance were recorded using videos and photos. There are three categories of Ethiopian dance: group dances divided by sex, eskista, and couple dances. In group dances divided by sex, large groups of either men or women perform dances. While there are both men and women dances, most are dance
In some central and northern areas, women's traditional clothes are often made from cloth called shemma. It is basically cotton cloth, about 90 cm wide, woven in long strips which are then sewn together. Sometimes shiny threads are woven into the fabric for an elegant effect. It takes about two to three weeks to make enough cloth for one dress. The bottom of the garment or shirt may be ornamented with patterns.
The Ethiopian cuisine consists of various vegetable or meat side dishes and entrees, often prepared as a wat or thick stew. One or more servings of wat are placed upon a piece of injera, a large sourdough flatbread, which is 50 cm in diameter and made out of fermented teff flour. One does not eat with utensils, but instead uses injera to scoop up the entrees and side dishes. Traditional Ethiopian food does not use any pork or seafood, as most Ethiopians have historically adhered to Islam, the Et
Track and field is Ethiopia's most successful sport, in which they have won many medals in the Olympic Games. Football is the most popular sport in Ethiopia. Despite lack of success by the national team, it is supported by a significant part of the population.
- Abrahamic religions
- Traditional faiths
- Views on the emperors
- Religious politics and tensions
Religion in Ethiopia consists of a number of faiths. Among these mainly Abrahamic religions, the most numerous is Christianity totaling at 62.8%, followed by Islam at 33.9%. There is also a longstanding but small Jewish community. Some adherents of the Baháʼí Faith likewise exist in a number of urban and rural areas. Additionally, there are a few followers of traditional faiths, who mainly reside in the southwestern part of the country. According to the national census conducted in 2007...
In general, most of the Christians live in the highlands, while Muslims and adherents of traditional African religions tend to inhabit more lowland regions in the east and south of the country. The numerous indigenous African religions in Ethiopia operate mainly in the far southwest and western borderlands.
Ethiopia has close historical ties to all three of the world's major Abrahamic religions. Christians form the majority of the population. Islam is the second most followed religion, with 33.9% of the population being adherents. 2.6% of the population follow traditional religions; other religions make up the remaining 0.6%. Ethiopia is the site of the first hijra in Islamic history and the oldest Muslim settlement in Africa at Negash. Until the 1980s, a substantial population of Ethiopian Jews re
An estimated 2.6% of Ethiopia's population adheres to various traditional faiths, according to the 2007 census. The largest numbers of practitioners of traditional religions are in the SNNPR and Oromia.
Ethiopia is the spiritual homeland of the Rastafari movement, whose adherents believe Ethiopia is Zion. The Rastafari view Emperor Haile Selassie as Jesus, the human incarnation of God. The Emperor himself was the defender of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, that also has a concept of Zion, although it represents a unique and complex concept, referring figuratively to St. Mary, but also to Ethiopia as a bastion of Christianity surrounded by Muslims and other religions, much like Mount Zion in the
Freedom of religion is provided by the constitution of 1995, and freedom of worship had also been guaranteed by the 1930 and 1955 Constitutions of Ethiopia, although in certain localities this principle is not always respected in practice. There is no state religion, and it is forbidden to form political parties based upon religion; all religious groups are required to register with the government, and renew their registration once every three years. It is a crime in Ethiopia to incite one relig
The second confirmed case is an 85-year-old Ethiopian who arrived in Ethiopia on 2 March. The third case is a 39-year-old Austrian national who arrived in Ethiopia on 15 March. On 22 March, two additional cases were reported. The first confirmed case is of a 28-year-old Ethiopian who had travelled to Belgium and arrived in Ethiopia on 14 March ...
- related to: Ethiopia wikipedia