Madhya Pradesh is the second largest Indian state by area and the fifth largest state by population with over 75 million residents. It borders the states of Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the southeast, Maharashtra to the south, Gujarat to the west, and Rajasthan to the northwest.
The natural environment of Madhya Pradesh is varied. Consisting largely of a plateau streaked with the mountain ranges of the Vindhyas and the Satpuras, the hills give rise to the main river system - Narmada and the Tapti, running from east to west, and the Chambal, Sone, Betwa, Mahanadi west to east.
- Ancient History
- Mauryans and their successors
- Middle Kingdoms and Late Medieval period (c. 230 BCE – 1526 CE)
- Early Modern period (1526–1858 CE)
- British Colonial period (1858–1947 CE)
The history of the Indian state Madhya Pradesh is divided into three periods. During the ancient period, the region was dominated by the Nanda, Maurya, and Gupta Empires. The medieval period saw the rise of Rajput clans including the Paramara and Chandela clans, the latter is known for constructing the temples of Khajuraho. The Malwa Sultanate also ruled during this period. The modern period in Madhya Pradesh saw the rise of the Mughal and Maratha empires, and later, the British Empire. The Brit
The Bhimbetka caves show evidence of paleolithic settlements in present-day Madhya Pradesh. Stone Age tools have also been discovered at various places along the Narmada river valley. Rock shelters with cave paintings, the earliest of which can be dated to 30,000 BCE, have also been discovered at a number of places. The settlements of humans in present-day Madhya Pradesh developed primarily in the valleys of rivers such as Narmada, Chambal, and Betwa. Chalcolithic sites of the Malwa culture have
The city of Ujjain arose as a major center in the second wave of Indian urbanization in the sixth century BC, and served as the chief city of the kingdom of Malwa or Avanti. Further east, the kingdom of Chedi lie in Bundelkhand. Chandragupta Maurya united northern India c. 1500 BCE, establishing the Maurya Empire, which included all of modern-day Madhya Pradesh. King Ashoka's wife was said to come from Vidisha- a town north of today's Bhopal. The Maurya Empire went into decline after the death o
The attacks of the Hephthalites or White Huns brought about the collapse of the Gupta empire, and India broke up into smaller states. A king Yasodharman of Malwa defeated the Huns in 528, ending their expansion. King Harsha of Thanesar reunited northern India for a few decades before his death in 647. Malwa was ruled by the South Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty from the late 8th century to the 10th century. The Medieval period saw the rise of the Rajput clans, including the Paramaras of Malwa and the
Most of Madhya Pradesh came under Mughal rule during the reign of the emperor Akbar. Gondwana and Mahakoshal remained under the control of Gond kings, who acknowledged Mughal supremacy but enjoyed virtual autonomy. During the Mughal period, Gwalior became a center for music, and the home of the famous Gwalior Gharana. After the death of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in 1707, Mughal control began to weaken, and the Marathas began to expand from their base in central Maharashtra. In the 18th centur
The British were expanding their Indian dominions from bases in Bengal, Bombay, and Madras, and the three Anglo-Maratha Wars were fought between 1775 and 1818. The Third Anglo-Maratha War left the British supreme in India. Most of Madhya Pradesh, including the large states of Indore, Bhopal, Nagpur, Rewa, and dozens of smaller states, became princely states of British India, and the Mahakoshal region became a British province, the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories. In 1853 the British annexed the
- Political parties
The Madhya Pradesh Vidhan Sabha or the Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly is the unicameral state legislature of Madhya Pradesh state in India. The seat of the Vidhan Sabha is at Bhopal, the capital of the state. It is housed in the Vidhan Bhavan, an imposing building located at the center of the Capital Complex in the Arera Hill locality of Bhopal city. The term of the Vidhan Sabha is five years unless dissolved earlier. Presently, it comprises 230 members who are directly elected from single-
The history of the Madhya Pradesh legislature can be traced back to 1913, as the Central Provinces Legislative Council was formed on 8 November of this year. Later, the Government of India Act 1935 provided for the elected Central Provinces Legislative assembly. The first elections to the Central Provinces Legislative Assembly were held in 1937. After Indian independence in 1947, the erstwhile province of Central Provinces and Berar, along with a number of princely states merged with the Indian
For results of Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha in Madhya Pradesh from 1951 to date, see: Elections in Madhya Pradesh.
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Founded in 1707, the city was the capital of the former Bhopal State, a princely state of the British ruled by the Nawabs of Bhopal. Numerous heritage structures from this period include the Taj-ul-Masajid and Taj Mahal palace. In 1984, the city was struck by the Bhopal disaster, one of the worst industrial disasters in history. A Y-class city, Bhopal houses various educational and research institutions and installations of national importance, including ISRO's Master Control Facility, BHEL, and
According to folklore, Bhopal was founded in the 11th century by the Paramara king Bhoja, who ruled from his capital at Dhar. This theory states that Bhopal was originally known as Bhojpal after a dam constructed by the king's minister. No archaeological evidence, inscriptions or
Bhopal became a princely state after signing a treaty with the British East India Company in 1818. Between 1819 and 1926, the state was ruled by four women, Begums — unique in the royalty of those days — under British suzerainty. Qudsia Begum was the first woman ruler ...
Bhopal State was the second-largest Muslim-ruled princely state: the first being Hyderabad. After the independence of India in 1947, the last Nawab expressed his wish to retain Bhopal as a separate unit. Agitations against the Nawab broke out in December 1948, leading to the arre
According to the 2011 census, the population of the Bhopal city is 1,798,218, with 936,168 males and 862,050 females. The population of the Bhopal metropolitan area was 1,886,100 in 2011. The total effective literacy rate was 85.24%, with male and female literacy respectively at 89.2% and 80.1%.
Diwali and Eid are major festivals in Bhopal. Gifts and sweets are exchanged and donation are made to the poor. Diwali is celebrated by worshiping the wealth goddess Lakshmi. Eid is special to the city as all the Hindus take time out to visit their Muslim friends and greet them and get treated with delicacies, the speciality of the day being sweet sewaiya. Bhopali culture is such that both Hindus and Muslims visit each other on their respective festivals to greet and exchange sweets. During Gane
The major industries in the old city are electrical goods, medicinal, cotton, chemicals and jewellery. Other industries include cotton and flour milling, cloth weaving and painting, as well as making matches, sealing wax, and sporting equipment. The residents of Bhopal also engage in large retail businesses. Handicrafts, like zardozi and batua are some of the products of the Old City. Bhopal is also home to the DB Corp, informally called the Bhaskar Group, a ₹17 billion business ...
- Places of interest
Mandu or Mandavgad is an ancient city in the present-day Mandav area of the Dhar district. It is located in the Malwa region of western Madhya Pradesh, India, at 35 km from Dhar city. In the 11th century, Mandu was the sub division of the Tarangagadh or Taranga kingdom. This fortress town on a rocky outcrop about 100 km from Indore is celebrated for its architecture.
An inscription discovered from Talanpur states that a merchant named Chandra Simha installed a statue in a temple of Parshvanatha located in the Mandapa Durg. While "Durg" means "Fort", the word "Mandu" is a Prakrit corruption of "mandapa", meaning "hall, temple". The inscription is dated 612 VS, which indicates that Mandu was a flourishing town in 6th century. Mandu gained prominence in 10th and 11th century under the Paramaras. The town of Mandu, situated at an elevation of 633 metres, is perc
Mandu, due to its strategic position and natural defences, was an important place with a rich and varied history. It was an important military outpost and its military past can be gauged by the circuit of the battlemented wall, which is nearly 37 km and is punctuated by 12 gateways. The wall encloses a large number of palaces, mosques, Jain temples of 14th century and other buildings. The oldest mosque dates from 1405; the finest is the Jama Masjid or great mosque, a notable example of Pashtun a
Betul is located at an elevation of over 2,000 feet above sea level, this region is rich in forests and biodiversity, making its climate pleasant throughout the year.Unlike the other parts of the state, Betul, which lies in the plains of the Satpura range, is a pleasant, peaceful getaway from dusty city life.The capital city Bhopal is 180 km and its nearer cities are chindwara,Nagpur,khandwa ...
Seoni is a city and a municipality in Seoni district in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.This tribal household dominated district was formed in the year 1956. Rudyard Kipling used the forests in the vicinity of Seoni, or as was spelled during British colonial rule, Seeonee, as the setting for the Mowgli stories in The Jungle Book and The Second Jungle Book (1894–1895), although the area is ...
Madhya Pradesh ye unu de los ventinueve estaos que, xuntu colos siete territorios de la Unión, formen la Republica de la India.La so capital ye Bhopal.Ta allugáu nel centru del país, llindando al norte con Rayastán y Uttar Pradesh, al este con Chhattisgarh, al sur con Maharastra y al oeste con Guyarat.