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  1. Maria Amalia, Holy Roman Empress - Wikipedia › wiki › Maria_Amalia,_Holy_Roman

    Maria Amalia of Austria (Maria Amalie Josefa Anna; 22 October 1701 – 11 December 1756) was Holy Roman Empress, Queen of the Germans, Queen of Bohemia, Electress and Duchess of Bavaria etc. as the spouse of Emperor Charles VII. By birth, she was an archduchess of Austria, the daughter of Emperor Joseph I and Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick ...

  2. Maria Amalia - Wikipedia › wiki › Maria_Amalia_of_Austria

    Maria Amalia of Saxony (1724–1760), princess of Saxony, Queen Consort of Spain and Naples as wife of Charles III. Maria Amalia, Duchess of Parma, (1746–1804), born Archduchess of Austria, by marriage Duchess of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla. Maria Amalia, Holy Roman Empress (1701–1756), born Archduchess of Austria, the daughter of Joseph ...

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  4. Maria Amalia, Duchess of Parma - Wikipedia › wiki › Maria_Amalia,_Duchess_of_Parma
    • Overview
    • Archduchess of Austria
    • Marriage
    • Duchess of Parma
    • Later life
    • Issue

    Maria Amalia was the Duchess of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla by marriage. Maria Amalia was a daughter of Empress Maria Theresa and Emperor Francis I. She was thus younger sister to Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor and older sister to Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples and Marie Antoinette, Queen of France. Arms of Maria Amalia of Austria, as Duchess of Parma.

    She was the eighth child of Empress Maria Theresa and Emperor Francis I. Born at the Hofburg Imperial Palace, she was raised in the Habsburg Viennese court in the winter and at Schönbrunn and Laxenburg in the summer. Like her siblings, she was regularly interviewed by her mother. Maria Amalia was mainly raised to be an ideal consort, as her sisters had been, and was taught arts and how to be obedient, dutiful and representative. Because of her age and the fact that the siblings were raised ...

    Against her will, Amalia was married to Ferdinand of Parma. The marriage was supported by the future Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II, whose first beloved wife had been Ferdinand's sister, Princess Isabella of Parma. The Archduchess's marriage to the Duke of Parma was part of a complicated series of contracts that married off Maria Theresa's daughters to the King of Naples and Sicily and the Dauphin of France. All three sons-in-law were members of the House of Bourbon. Maria Amalia had fallen in lov

    Maria Amalia left Austria on 1 July 1769, accompanied by her brother, Joseph II, and married Ferdinand on 19 July, at the Ducal Palace of Colorno. The Duchy of Parma was by this time ruled more or less as a French puppet state by minister Guillaume du Tillot. Du Tillot kept Ferdinand out of politics, and was favored by the maternal grandfather of Duke Ferdinand, Louis XV of France. A letter of Louis XV to his grandson dated May 1769 attests to this, wherein he counseled his grandson not to despi

    In May 1796, during the French invasion of Italy under General Napoleon Bonaparte, the Duchy of Parma was invaded by French troops. Against the opposition of Amalia, who detested the French after the execution of her sister Marie Antoinette, Ferdinand was ambivalent because of him being half French, and had declared the Duchy neutral against her will, but the neutrality was not respected by the French. Napoleon offered to refrain from conquering the Duchy if they agreed to let troops pass. After

    Maria Amalia and Ferdinand had nine children, but only four survived childhood: 1. Carolina. Married Prince Maximilian of Saxony and was the mother of King Frederick Augustus II of Saxony and King Johann I of Saxony. 2. Louis. The first of only two kings of Etruria. Married his first cousin, Maria Louisa of Spain. 3. Maria Antonia, joined the religious order in 1802 and became an Ursuline abbess. 4. Maria Carlotta, joined the Dominican order in 1797 and became a prioress 5. Philip Maria. 6. Mari

  5. Maria Amalia, Holy Roman Empress — Wikipedia Republished ... › en › Maria_Amalia,_Holy_Roman_Empress
    • Early Life
    • Marriage
    • Death

    Maria Amalia was born an Aus­trian arch­duchess in Hof­burg Palace, Vi­enna; about eleven weeks after the death of her in­fant brother Leopold Joseph, her par­ents' only son. Her mother, Em­press Wil­helmine Amalia, was un­able to con­ceive more chil­dren after Maria Amalia, sup­pos­edly be­cause her fa­ther, Em­peror Joseph I, had con­tracted syphilis from one of his mis­tressesand passed the dis­ease to his wife, ren­der­ing the Em­press in­fer­tile. Maria Amalia's fa­ther had a long line of mis­tresses, both ser­vants and no­bles, and sev­eral il­le­git­i­mate chil­dren. When Maria Amalia was nine-years-old, her fa­ther died of small­pox and was suc­ceeded by his brother Em­peror Charles VI. Charles ig­nored a de­cree signed dur­ing the reign of his and Joseph's fa­ther, Em­peror Leopold I, that gave Maria Amali and her sis­ter Maria Josepha prece­dence in suc­ces­sion as the daugh­ters of Leopold's el­dest son. In­stead, he pro­mul­gated the Prag­matic Sanc­tion of 1713, which r...

    Maria Amalia was pro­posed as a bride for the Ital­ian Vic­tor Amadeus, Prince of Pied­mont, heir to the King­dom of Sicily and Duchy of Savoy. The union was sup­posed to cre­ate bet­ter re­la­tions be­tween Savoy and Aus­tria, but the plan was ig­nored by the Duke of Savoy. The younger Vic­tor Amadeus sub­se­quently died of small­pox, un­mar­ried, in 1715. In 1717, Maria Amalia met her fu­ture spouse, Charles Al­bert of Bavaria, when he vis­ited Vi­ennaon his way to par­tic­i­pate in the war against the Ot­toman Em­pire in Bel­grade. He used the time to be­come ac­quainted with the Im­pe­r­ial fam­ily, and wished to marry into the Hab­s­burg dy­nasty for dy­nas­tic and eco­nomic rea­sons. They met a sec­ond time in 1718. How­ever, Charles Al­bert ini­tially asked to marry her elder sis­ter Maria Josepha, but she was al­ready en­gaged at the time of his pro­posal. Maria Amalia and her sis­ter Maria Josepha were both given a very strict Catholic up­bring­ing with focus on Catholic re...

    Maria Amalia's hus­band died on 20 Jan­u­ary 1745 and was buried at the The­a­tine Church in Mu­nich. On his death, she per­suaded her son Max­i­m­il­ian to make peace with her cousin Maria Theresa. As a widow, she mainly resided at Fuer­sten­ried Palace. In 1754, Maria Amalia founded a med­ical hos­pi­tal, man­aged by the nuns of the Elis­a­betiner­in­nen, whom she in­vited to Mu­nich. This is counted as the first mod­ern hos­pi­tal in the city. Maria Amalia died in Mu­nich at the Nymphen­burg Palaceon 11 De­cem­ber 1756, aged 55. The fol­low­ing anec­dote is from the fifth vol­ume of Casanova's His­tory of My Life: 1. 1.1. The confessor, who was a Jesuit, received me as badly as possible. He said in passing that my reputation was well known in Munich. I asked him firmly if he was telling me this as good news or bad, and he did not answer. He simply walked away, and a priest told me that he had gone to verify a miracle of which all Munich was talking. "The Empress," he said, "the w...

  6. Talk:Maria Amalia, Holy Roman Empress - Wikipedia › wiki › Talk:Maria_Amalia,_Holy

    Maria Amalia of Austria → Maria Amalia, Holy Roman Empress – In the recently no-consensus close for the move of this page, an alternative target of Maria Amalia (empress) was proposed, with two commenters suggesting a third alternate, the current proposed target. I feel that a consensus to move might be achieved based on the content of the ...

  7. Maria of Austria, Holy Roman Empress - Wikipedia › wiki › Maria_of_Austria,_Holy

    Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Mother. Isabella of Portugal. Archduchess Maria of Austria (21 June 1528 – 26 February 1603) was the empress consort and queen consort of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia and Hungary. She served as regent of Spain in the absence of her father Emperor Charles V from 1548 until 1551.

  8. List of Holy Roman empresses - Wikipedia › wiki › Holy_Roman_Empresses

    The Holy Roman empress or empress of the Holy Roman Empire (Kaiserin des Heiligen Römischen Reiches) was the wife or widow of the Holy Roman emperor.The elective dignity of Holy Roman emperor was restricted to males only, but some empresses, such as Theophanu and Maria Theresa, were de facto rulers of the Empire.

  9. Maria Amalia, Holy Roman Empress - Wikipedia › wiki › Maria_Amalia,_Holy_Roman

    Maria Amalia of Austria; Holy Roman Empress Queen consort of Germany; Tenure: 12 February 1742 – 20 January 1745: Queen consort of Bohemia; Tenure: 9 December 1741–1743

  10. Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia › wiki › en:Joseph_II,_Holy_Roman
    • Early Life
    • Marriages and Children
    • Co-Ruler
    • Sole Reign
    • Death
    • Memory and Legacy
    • See Also
    • Bibliography
    • External Links

    Joseph was born in the midst of the early upheavals of the War of the Austrian Succession. His formal education was provided through the writings of David Hume, Edward Gibbon, Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and the Encyclopédistes, and by the example of his contemporary (and sometimes rival) King Frederick II of Prussia. His practical training was conferred by government officials, who were directed to instruct him in the mechanical details of the administration of the numerous states composing the Austriandominions and the Holy Roman Empire.

    Joseph married Princess Isabella of Parma in October 1760, a union fashioned to bolster the 1756 defensive pact between France and Austria. (The bride's mother, Princess Louise Élisabeth, was the eldest daughter of the incumbent King of France. Isabella's father was Philip, Duke of Parma.) Joseph loved his bride, Isabella, finding her both stimulating and charming, and she sought with special care to cultivate his favor and affection. Isabella also found a best friend and confidant in her husband's sister, Maria Christina, Duchess of Teschen. The marriage of Joseph and Isabella resulted in the birth of a daughter, Maria Theresa. Isabella was fearful of pregnancy and early death, largely a result of the early loss of her mother. Her own pregnancy proved especially difficult as she suffered symptoms of pain, illness and melancholy both during and afterward, though Joseph attended to her and tried to comfort her. She remained bedridden for six weeks after their daughter's birth. Almost...

    Joseph was made a member of the constituted council of state (Staatsrat) and began to draw up minutes for his mother to read. These papers contain the germs of his later policy, and of all the disasters that finally overtook him. He was a friend to religious toleration, anxious to reduce the power of the church, to relieve the peasantry of feudal burdens, and to remove restrictions on trade and knowledge. In these, he did not differ from Frederick, or his own brother and successor Leopold II, all enlightened rulers of the 18th century. He tried to liberate serfs, but that did not last after his death. Where Joseph differed from great contemporary rulers, and was akin to the Jacobins in the intensity of his belief in the power of the state when directed by reason. As an absolutist ruler, however, he was also convinced of his right to speak for the state uncontrolled by laws, and of the wisdom of his own rule. He had also inherited from his mother the belief of the house of Austria in...

    The death of Maria Theresa on 29 November 1780 left Joseph free to pursue his own policy, and he immediately directed his government on a new course, attempting to realize his ideal of enlightened despotism acting on a definite system for the good of all. He undertook the spread of education, the secularization of church lands, the reduction of the religious orders and the clergy, in general, to complete submission to the lay state, the issue of the Patent of Tolerance (1781) providing limited guarantee of freedom of worship, and the promotion of unity by the compulsory use of the German language (replacing Latin or in some instances local languages)—everything which from the point of view of 18th-century philosophy, the Age of Enlightenment, appeared "reasonable". He strove for administrative unity with characteristic haste to reach results without preparation. Joseph carried out measures of the emancipation of the peasantry, which his mother had begun, and abolished serfdom in 178...

    In November 1788, Joseph returned to Vienna with ruined health and was left abandoned. His minister Kaunitz refused to visit his sick-room and did not see him for two years. His brother Leopold remained at Florence. At last, Joseph, worn out and broken-hearted, recognized that his servants could not, or would not, carry out his plans. Joseph died on 20 February 1790. He is buried in tomb number 42 in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna. He asked that his epitaph read: "Here lies a ruler, who despite his best intentions, couldn't realize any of his plans." (Hier liegt ein Fürst, der trotz der besten Meinung keiner seiner Pläne durchsetzen konnte in German original). Joseph was succeeded by his brother, Leopold II.

    The legacy of Josephinism would live on through the Austrian Enlightenment. To an extent, Joseph II's enlightenment beliefs were exaggerated by the author of what Beales calls the "false Constantinople letters". Long considered genuine writings of Joseph II, these forged works have erroneously augmented the emperor's memory for centuries. These legendary quotations have created a larger-than-life impression of Joseph II as a Voltaire and Diderot-like philosophe, more radical than he probably was. In 1849 the Hungarian Declaration of Independencedeclared that Joseph II was not a true King of Hungary as he was never crowned, thus any act from his reign was null and void. In 1888, Hungarian historian Henrik Marczali published a three-volume study of Joseph, the first important modern scholarly work on his reign, and the first to make systematic use of archival research. Marczali was Jewish and a product of the bourgeois-liberal school of historiography in Hungary, and he portrayed Jose...


    1. Szabo, Franz A. J. "Changing Perspectives on the 'Revolutionary Emperor': Joseph II Biographies since 1790," Journal of Modern History(2011) 83#1 pp. 111–138

    Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor at Find a Grave
    Collectio ordinationum imperatoris Josephi II-i et repraesentationum diversorum regni Hungariae comitatuum Pars 1. Dioszeg: Paul Medgyes, 1790. 318 p. - available at ULB's Digital Library
    Constituta regia quae regnante August, Imperatore et rege Apostol. Josepho II. politicorum Pars 1., 2. (1.) De publicorum negotiorum administratione, (2.) De Politia .... Viennae: Kurzbek, 1788. 39...
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