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      • The Peace of Westphalia (German: Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster, largely ending the European wars of religion , including the Thirty Years' War.
      en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peace_of_Westphalia#:~:text=The%20Peace%20of%20Westphalia%20%28German%3A%20Westf%C3%A4lischer%20Friede%29%20was,wars%20of%20religion%2C%20including%20the%20Thirty%20Years%27%20War.
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  2. Peace of Westphalia - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peace_of_Westphalia

    The Peace of Westphalia (German: Westfälischer Friede) is the collective name for two peace treaties signed in October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster. They ended the Thirty Years' War and brought peace to the Holy Roman Empire, closing a calamitous period of European history that killed approximately eight million ...

    • Locations

      Peace negotiations between France and the Habsburgs began in...

    • Delegations

      The peace negotiations had no exact beginning and ending,...

    • Treaties

      Three separate treaties constituted the peace settlement. 1....

  3. Peace of Westphalia - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ...

    simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peace_of_Westphalia

    The Peace of Westphalia refers to the pair of peace treaties, the Treaty of Osnabrück and the Treaty of Münster, signed on May 15 and October 24 of 1648, which ended both the Thirty Years' War and the Eighty Years' War.

  4. Westphalia - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westphalia
    • Overview
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    • Economy

    Westphalia is a region of northwestern Germany and one of the three historic parts of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It has an area of 20,210 km2 and 7.9 million inhabitants. The territory of the region is almost identical with the historic Province of Westphalia, which was a part of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1815 to 1918 and the Free State of Prussia from 1918 to 1946. In 1946, Westphalia merged with the Northern Rhineland, another former part of Prussia, to form the newly created state

    Being a part of the North German Plain, most of Westphalia's north is flat. In the south the German Central Uplands emerge. Westphalia is divided into the following landscapes. Flat to hilly: East Westphalia, Münsterland, eastern Ruhr Metropolitan Area, Tecklenburg Land ...

    Westphalia is roughly the region in between the rivers Rhine and Weser, located both north and south of the Ruhr River. Other important rivers are the Ems and the Lippe.

    The Langenberg and the Kahler Asten in the Sauerland part of the Rothaar Mountains are Westphalia's and also North Rhine-Westphalia's highest mountains.

    The traditional symbol of Westphalia is the Westphalian Steed: a white horse on a red field. It is derived from the Saxon Steed in the coat of arms of the medieval Duchy of Saxony which most of today's Westphalia was part of. In official contexts the coat of arms of Westphalia is

    The colors of Westphalia are white and red. The flag of the Westphalia-Lippe Regional Association uses these colors with the Westphalian coat of arms in its center. The flag of North Rhine-Westphalia is a combination of the Northern Rhineland's colors green/white and the Westphal

    Composed in Iserlohn in 1886 by Emil Rittershaus, the Westfalenlied is an unofficial anthem of Westphalia.

    While the Northern Rhineland, Westphalia and Lippe are different historic territories of today's North Rhine-Westphalia, the old border between the former Rhine Province and the Province of Westphalia is also a language border. While in Westphalia and Lippe, people tend to speak West Low German dialects and especially the Westphalian variant of the Low German language, Central German and Low Franconian dialects are spoken in the Northern Rhineland. These different regional identities are often b

    Westphalia is known for the 1648 Peace of Westphalia which ended the Thirty Years' War, as the two treaties were signed in Münster and Osnabrück. It is one of the regions that were part of all incarnations of the German state since the Early Middle Ages: the Holy Roman Empire, the Confederation of the Rhine, the German Confederation, the North German Confederation, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic and National Socialist Germany. After World War II it was a part of the British ...

    Westphalia is home to the headquarters of Westfalia-Werke, the contractor that built the Volkswagen Westfalia Campers.

    • 7,803 sq mi (20,210 km²)
    • Germany
  5. Peace of Westphalia | Military Wiki | Fandom

    military.wikia.org/wiki/Peace_of_Westphalia
    • Locations
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    Peace negotiations between France and the Habsburgs, provided by the Holy Roman Emperor and the Spanish King, were to be started in Cologne in 1636. These negotiations were blocked by France. Cardinal Richelieu of France desired the inclusion of all its allies, whether sovereign or a state within the Holy Roman Empire. In Hamburg and Lübeck, Sweden and the Holy Roman Empire negotiated the Treaty of Hamburg. This was done with the intervention of Richelieu.The Holy Roman Empire and Sweden declared the preparations of Cologne and the Treaty of Hamburg to be preliminaries of an overall peace agreement. This larger agreement was to be negotiated in Westphalia, in the neighbouring cities of Münster and Osnabrück. Both cities were to be maintained as neutral and demilitarized zones for the negotiations. Münster was, since its re-Catholization in 1535, a strictly mono-denominational community. It housed the Chapter of the Prince-Bishopric of Münster. Only Roman Catholic worship was permitt...

    The peace negotiations had no exact beginning and ending, because the participating total of 109 delegations never met in a plenary session, but dropped in between 1643 and 1646 and left between 1647 and 1649. Between January 1646 and July 1647 probably the largest number of diplomats were present. Delegations had been sent by 16 European states, sixty-six Imperial States, representing the interests of a total of 140 involved Imperial States, and 27 interest groups, representing the interests of a variety of a total of 38 groups. 1. The French delegation was headed by Henri II d'Orléans, duc de Longueville and further comprised the diplomats Claude d'Avaux and Abel Servien. 2. The Swedes plenipotentiaries sent Johan Oxenstierna, the son of chancellor Axel Oxenstierna, and Johan Adler Salvius. 3. The head of the delegation of the Holy Roman Empire for both cities was Count Maximilian von Trautmansdorff; in Münster, his aides were Johann Ludwig von Nassau-Hadamar and Isaak Volmar (a l...

    Internal political boundaries

    The power taken by Ferdinand III in contravention of the Holy Roman Empire's constitution was stripped and returned to the rulers of the Imperial States. This rectification allowed the rulers of the Imperial Statesto independently decide their religious worship. Protestants and Catholics were redefined as equal before the law, and Calvinism was given legal recognition. The Holy See was very displeased at the settlement, with Pope Innocent X in Zelo Domus Deireportedly calling it "null, void,...

    Tenets

    The main tenets of the Peace of Westphalia were: 1. All parties would recognize the Peace of Augsburg of 1555, in which each prince would have the right to determine the religion of his own state, the options being Catholicism, Lutheranism, and now Calvinism (the principle of cuius regio, eius religio). 2. Christians living in principalities where their denomination was notthe established church were guaranteed the right to practice their faith in public during allotted hours and in private a...

    Charter of Liberties
    Concordat of Worms
    Freedom of religion
    • 1646–1648
    • 15 May – 24 October 1648
    • 109
    • Peace treaty
  6. Peace of Westphalia - The Reader Wiki, Reader View of Wikipedia

    thereaderwiki.com/en/Peace_of_Westphalia

    The Peace of Westphalia (German: Westfälischer Friede) is the collective name for two peace treaties signed in October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster. They ended the Thirty Years' War and brought peace to the Holy Roman Empire, closing a calamitous period of European history that killed approximately eight million ...

  7. Westphalia is known for the 1648 Peace of Westphalia which ended the Thirty Years' War, as the two treaties were signed in Münster and Osnabrück This short article about a place or feature can be made longer.

  8. Peace of Westphalia | Wikipedia audio article - YouTube

    www.youtube.com/watch?v=MUXcdyarnxs

    Nov 26, 2018 · This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Peace of Westphalia Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but ...

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  9. Kingdom of Westphalia - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Westphalia

    The Kingdom of Westphalia was created in 1807 by merging territories ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia in the Peace of Tilsit, among them the region of the Duchy of Magdeburg west of the Elbe River, the Brunswick-Lüneburg territories of Hanover and Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, and the Electorate of Hesse.

  10. Peace of Prague (1635) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peace_of_Prague_(1635)

    The Peace of Prague, Pražský mír (Czech), Prager Frieden (German), signed on 30 May 1635, ended Saxony's participation in the Thirty Years War.The terms would later form the basis of the 1648 Peace of Westphalia.

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