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  1. Cushitic languages - Wikipedia › wiki › Proto-Cushitic

    (Redirected from Proto-Cushitic) The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. They are spoken primarily in the Horn of Africa, with minorities speaking Cushitic languages to the north in Egypt and the Sudan, and to the south in Kenya and Tanzania.

  2. Category:Proto-Cushitic language - Wiktionary › wiki › Category:Proto-Cushitic

    Proto-Cushitic is a reconstructed language. Its words and roots are not directly attested in any written works, but have been reconstructed through the comparative method, which finds regular similarities between languages that cannot be explained by coincidence or word-borrowing, and extrapolates ancient forms from these similarities.

  3. Cushitic languages - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ... › wiki › Cushitic_languages

    From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. They are mainly spoken in the Horn of Africa and the Nile Valley. Some widely spoken Cushitic languages are Oromo, Somali, Beja, Agaw, Afar, Saho and Sidamo.

    • cus
    • Afro-AsiaticCushitic
  4. Cushitic peoples - Wikipedia › wiki › Cushitic_peoples

    Caddaynta ugu horreysa ee kooxaha ku hadla afka Cushitic ee Geeska Afrika laga yaabee inay ku hadlayaan nooc ka mid ah Proto-Cushitic, waxay ka yimaadaan sawirada godadka qadiimka ah. Laas Geel , waa farshaxankii hore ee dhagaxa qadiimiga ahaa ee Waqooyiga Soomaaliya wuxuu marqaati u yahay calaamadaha ugu horreeya ee dadweyne la rumeysan yahay ...

  5. Cushitic languages wiki | TheReaderWiki › en › Cushitic_languages
    • Official Status
    • Origin and Prehistory
    • Typological Characteristics
    • Classification
    • Extinct Languages
    • Reconstruction
    • Comparative Vocabulary
    • See Also

    The Cushitic languages with the greatest number of total speakers are Oromo (37 million), Somali (22 million), Beja (3.2 million), Sidamo (3 million), and Afar(2 million). Oromo serves as one of the official working languages of Ethiopia and is also the working language of several of the states within the Ethiopian federal system including Oromia, Harari and Dire Dawa regional states and of the Oromia Zone in the Amhara Region. Somali is one of two official languages of Somalia and three official languages of Somaliland. It also serves as a language of instruction in Djibouti, and as the working language of the Somali Regionin Ethiopia. Beja, Afar, Blin and Saho, the languages of the Cushitic branch of Afroasiatic that are spoken in Eritrea, are languages of instruction in the Eritrean elementary school curriculum. The constitution of Eritrea also recognizes the equality of all natively spoken languages. Additionally, Afar is a language of instruction in Djibouti, as well as the wor...

    There is some evidence of a Proto-Cushitic language as far back as the Early Holocene. Based on onomastic evidence, the Medjay and the Blemmyes of northern Nubia are believed to have spoken Cushitic languages related to the modern Beja language. Less certain are hypotheses which propose that Cushitic languages were spoken by the people of the C-Group culture in northern Nubia, or the people of the Kerma culturein southern Nubia.


    Most Cushitic languages have a simple five-vowel system with phonemic length (/a a: e e: i i: o o: u u:/); a notable exception are the Agaw languages, which do not contrast vowel length, but have one or two additional central vowels. The consonant inventory of many Cushitic languages includes glottalic consonants, e.g. in Oromo, which has the ejectives /pʼ tʼ tʃʼ kʼ/ and the implosive /ᶑ/. Less common are pharyngeal consonants /ħ ʕ/, which appear e.g. in Somali or the Saho–Afar languages. Pit...


    Nouns are inflected for case and number. All nouns are further grouped into two gender categories, masculine gender and feminine gender. In many languages, gender is overtly marked directly on the noun (e.g. in Awngi, where all female nouns carry the suffix -a). The case system of many Cushitic languages is characterized by marked nominative alignment, which is typologically quite rare and predominantly found in languages of Africa.In marked nominative languages, the noun appears in unmarked...


    The phylum was first designated as Cushitic in 1858.The Cushitic languages usually include the following branches: 1. North Cushitic (Beja) 2. Central Cushitic (Agaw languages) 3. East Cushitic 3.1. Lowland East Cushitic 3.2. Highland East Cushitic 3.3. Yaaku-Dullay 3.4. Dahalo 4. South Cushitic These classifications have not been without contention, and many other classifications have been proposed over the years.


    Beja constitutes the only member of the Northern Cushitic subgroup. As such, Beja contains a number of linguistic innovations that are unique to it, as is also the situation with the other subgroups of Cushitic (e.g. idiosyncratic features in Agaw or Central Cushitic). Hetzron (1980) argues that Beja therefore may comprise an independent branch of the Afroasiatic family. However, this suggestion has been rejected by most other scholars.The characteristics of Beja that differ from those of oth...

    Other divergent languages

    There are also a few poorly-classified languages, including Yaaku, Dahalo, Aasax, Kw'adza, Boon, the Cushitic element of Mbugu (Ma'a) and Ongota. There is a wide range of opinions as to how the languages are interrelated. The positions of the Dullay languages and of Yaaku are uncertain. They have traditionally been assigned to an East Cushitic subbranch along with Highland (Sidamic) and Lowland East Cushitic. However, Hayward thinks that East Cushitic may not be a valid node and that its cons...

    A number of extinct populations have been proposed to have spoken Afroasiatic languages of the Cushitic branch. Marianne Bechhaus-Gerst (2000) proposed that the peoples of the Kerma Culture – which inhabited the Nile Valley in present-day Sudan immediately before the arrival of the first Nubian speakers – spoke Cushitic languages. She argues that the Nilo-Saharan Nobiin language today contains a number of key pastoralism related loanwords that are of proto-Highland East Cushitic origin, including the terms for sheep/goatskin, hen/cock, livestock enclosure, butter and milk. However, more recent linguistic research indicates that the people of the Kerma culture (who were based in southern Nubia) instead spoke Nilo-Saharan languages of the Eastern Sudanic branch, and that the peoples of the C-Group culture to their north (in northern Nubia) and other groups in northern Nubia (such as the Medjay and Belmmyes) spoke Cushitic languages with the latter being related to the modern Beja lang...

    Christopher Ehret proposed a reconstruction of Proto-Cushitic in 1987, but did not base this on individual branch reconstructions. Grover Hudson (1989) has done some preliminary work on Highland East Cushitic, David Appleyard (2006) has proposed a reconstruction of Proto-Agaw, and Roland Kießling and Maarten Mous (2003) have jointly proposed a reconstruction of West Rift Southern Cushitic. No reconstruction been published for Lowland East Cushitic, though Paul D. Black wrote his (unpublished) dissertation on the topic in 1974.No comparative work has yet brought these branch reconstructions together.

    Basic vocabulary

    Sample basic vocabulary of Cushitic languages from Vossen & Dimmendaal (2020:318) (with PSC denoting Proto-Southern Cushitic):


    Comparison of numerals in individual Cushitic languages:

  6. Kushitiske sprog - Cushitic languages - › wiki › Cushitic_languages

    Christopher Ehret foreslog en rekonstruktion af Proto-Cushitic i 1987, men baserede ikke dette på individuelle grenrekonstruktioner. Grover Hudson (1989) har udført noget indledende arbejde med Highland East Cushitic, David Appleyard (2006) har foreslået en rekonstruktion af Proto-Agaw, og Roland Kießling og Maarten Mous (2003) har i ...

  7. Ekkehard Wolff ushitic languages From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Cushitic Geographic Northeast Africa distribution Afro-Asiatic Linguistic classification Cushitic Proto-language Proto-Cushitic Beja ("North") Agaw languages ("Central") Dullay Subdivisions Highland East Cushitic ("Sidamic") Lowland East Cushitic South Cushitic ISO 639-2 / 5 ...

  8. What is the Cushitic language split first from Proto-Cushitic ... › What-is-the-Cushitic-language

    Jan 18, 2021 · Some think that Beja split off first. But it is not very certain. The different branches of Cushitic, which are mainly Beja, Central Cushitic, East Cushitic, and South Cushitic, are very distantly related to each other.

  9. Appendix:Vocabulary lists of African languages - Wiktionary › wiki › Appendix:Vocabulary_lists

    Apr 14, 2021 · Appendix:Proto-Cushitic reconstructions - Ehret (1987) Appendix:Proto-Agaw reconstructions - Appleyard (2006) Appendix:Proto-Omotic reconstructions - Bender (1987) Appendix:Proto-Aroid reconstructions - Yigezu (2013) Appendix:Proto-Maji reconstructions - Aklilu (2003) Appendix:Mao word lists - Küspert (2015) Appendix:Proto-Semitic stems ...

  10. olla - Wiktionary › wiki › olla

    Jun 06, 2021 · 2019 March 1, Mary Kathryn Dunston, Farmer's Almanac ‎ [1]: An olla (which literally means “pot”) is a round, unglazed terra cotta clay pot with a long neck that you fill with water and bury next to your plants. It irrigates in the ground. A cinerary urn in ancient Rome.

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