e Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice set down by John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
The Reformed Church in America (RCA) is a mainline Reformed Protestant denomination in Canada and the United States. It has about 194,064 members. From its beginning in 1628 until 1819, it was the North American branch of the Dutch Reformed Church.
First Reformed Theatrical release poster Directed byPaul Schrader Produced by Jack Binder Greg Clark Victoria Hill Gary Hamilton Deepak Sikka Christine Vachon David Hinojosa Frank Murray Written byPaul Schrader Starring Ethan Hawke Amanda Seyfried Cedric Kyles Music byLustmord CinematographyAlexander Dynan Edited byBenjamin Rodriguez Jr. Production companies Killer Films Omeira Studio Partners Fibonacci Films Arclight Films Big Indie Productions Distributed byA24 Release date August 31, 2017 May
Ernst Toller is the pastor of the First Reformed Church in Snowbridge, New York, who is struggling with a crisis of faith. The film opens with him writing down his thoughts in a journal, which he plans to keep for a year, and then destroy. He leads a 250-year-old Dutch Reformed Church which was once a stop on the Underground Railroad. It faces dwindling attendance under Toller's leadership, which has taken the church away from its historical focus on Calvinist theology; it now serves mostly as a
First Reformed was filmed over the course of 20 days around Brooklyn and Queens, New York, including the building and grounds of the Zion Episcopal Church in Douglaston, Queens. Schrader said he was inspired by Paweł Pawlikowski's film Ida to shoot in a 4:3 aspect ratio, saying "It... drives the vertical lines, so you get more of the human body in the frame."
In September 2017, A24 acquired distribution rights to the film. It was theatrically released in the United States on May 18, 2018. It has also screened in a number of film festivals, including those in New Zealand and Melbourne. The screenplay will be published by Archway Editions in 2021 with an introduction by Masha Tupitsyn.
First Reformed grossed $100,270 from four theaters in its opening weekend, an average of $25,068 per venue, one of the best of Schrader's career. It went on to make $4 million worldwide.
On Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 93% based on 242 reviews, and an average rating of 8.3/10. The website's critical consensus reads: "Brought to life by delicate work from writer-director Paul Schrader and elevated by a standout performance by Ethan Hawke,
The film received nominations for four awards at the Independent Spirit Awards: Best Film, Best Male Lead for Hawke, and Best Director and Best Screenplay for Schrader. At the Critics' Choice Movie Awards, the film received two nominations for Best Actor and Best Original Screenp
- By region
Reformed Baptists are Baptists that hold to a Calvinist soteriology. They can trace their history through the early modern Particular Baptists of England. The first Reformed Baptist church was formed in the 1630s. The 1689 Baptist Confession of Faith was written along Reformed Baptist lines.
Groups calling themselves Strict Baptists are often differentiated from those calling themselves "Reformed Baptists", sharing the same Calvinist doctrine, but differing on ecclesiastical polity; "Strict Baptists" generally prefer a congregationalist polity. The group of Strict Ba
Sovereign Grace Baptists in the broadest sense are any "Calvinistic" Baptists that accept God's sovereign grace in salvation and predestination. In the narrower sense, certain churches and groups have preferred "Sovereign Grace" in their name, rather than using the terms "Calvini
Reformed Baptist churches in the UK go back to the 1630s. Notable early pastors include the author John Bunyan, Benjamin Keach, the theologian John Gill, John Brine, Andrew Fuller, and the missionary William Carey. Charles Spurgeon, pastor to the New Park Street Chapel in London,
Baptist churches in the United States continued to operate under the confessional statement, the 1689 London Baptist, but they renamed it according to the local associations in which it was adopted, first the Philadelphia Confession, then the Charleston Confession. When The South
Notable Reformed Baptist figures in Africa include Conrad Mbewe in Zambia, who has been compared to Spurgeon; Kenneth Mbugua and John Musyimi of Emmanuel Baptist Church Nairobi, Kenya.
- General principles and historical overview
- Images, saints, and holy days
Reformed worship is religious devotion to God as conducted by Reformed or Calvinistic Christians, including Presbyterians. Despite considerable local and national variation, public worship in most Reformed and Presbyterian churches is governed by the Regulative principle of worship.
Huldrych Zwingli, who began his reforming work in Zurich in 1518, introduced many radical changes to worship. His Sunday service, instituted in 1519, was apparently derived from a liturgy called Prone, a late Medieval service which was sometimes held before, during, or after mass. It contained the Lord's Prayer, a Hail Mary, a sermon, a remembrance of those who had died the previous week, another Lord's Prayer and Hail Mary, the Apostles' Creed, the Decalogue, confession, and absolution. Martin
In the years leading up to the Reformation, baptism was often conducted in private as a celebration of the birth of children. The rite was considered necessary for salvation, and so midwives often baptized children to avoid the risk that the child would die unbaptized. Strasbourg reformer Martin Bucer made it a part of the worship service so that parishioners could be reminded of their own baptism, which was to be the sign of their incorporation into the church. The parents of children were to b
Rather than preaching on the appointed gospel, as was the common practice at the time Zwingli preached through consecutive books of the Bible, a practice known as lectio continua which he learned from reading the sermons of John Chrysostom. John Oecolampadius preached from the Hebrew text rather than the Latin, though most theologians during the time often could not even read Greek. In Strasbourg, Martin Bucer and its other preachers also preached lectio continua. There, catechetical preaching t
Music in worship was abolished altogether by Ulrich Zwingli in Zurich in 1523 based on a belief that the Bible did not allow for it and that physical means could not lead to spiritual edification. A number of German cities published Protestant songbooks before Martin Luther's Geystliche gesangk Buchleyn, including Nuremberg and Erfurt. The reformed Church in Strasbourg, under the leadership of Martin Bucer, was one of the first to institute congregational singing to replace choral singing, and p
Zwingli and Jud also preached against prayer to saints, though the Hail Mary was retained in the liturgy until 1563. Starting in 1525, the Eucharist, which had been celebrated by priests each Sunday but only with the laity communing at Christmas, Easter, Pentecost, and the festival of Sts. Felix and Regula, the patron saints of Zurich, now only took place at those festivals, with the laity always participating. The festivals of Circumcision, Annunciation, and Ascension were also retained. In Gen
Reformed fundamentalism is a movement that arose in some conservative Presbyterian, Reformed Baptist, and other Reformed churches, which also agreed with the motives and aims of broader evangelical Protestant fundamentalism.
- International distribution
The Dutch Reformed Church was the largest Christian denomination in the Netherlands from the onset of the Protestant Reformation until 1930. It was the foremost Protestant denomination, and—since 1892—one of the two major Reformed denominations along with the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands. It spread to the United States, South Africa, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Brazil, and various other world regions through the Dutch colonization. It was the original denomination of the Dutch Royal...
Before the demise of the Dutch Republic in 1795, the Dutch Reformed Church enjoyed the status of "public" or "privileged" church. Though it was never formally adopted as the state religion, the law demanded that every public official should be a communicant member. Consequently, the Church had close relations with the Dutch government. A privilege of members of the Dutch Reformed Church was that they could have their businesses open on Sundays, otherwise considered a religious day and not one fo
The Reformation was a time of religious violence and persecution by the established Catholic Church and governments, in some cases. Efforts to form a Reformed church in the southern provinces stemmed from a secret meeting of Protestant leaders at Antwerp in 1566, and despite Span
The first Synod to be located in the Dutch Republic was held in Dordrecht in 1578. This synodical meeting is not to be confused with the better known Second Synod of Dort of 1618. Large groups of Marranos settled in Emden and converted to Christianity. Mostly all Marranos, many J
The 17th and early 18th centuries were the age of the Dutch Nadere Reformatie, led primarily by Gisbertus Voetius and Wilhelmus à Brakel, which was greatly influenced by English Puritanism.
Dutch migrants carried the Dutch Reformed Church with them, planting several Reformed denominations in Kenya, South Africa, including the Three Sister Churches of South Africa, the Afrikaans Protestant Church, and the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa.
Through the Dutch East India Company and its workers, the Dutch Reformed Church was established in Ceylon in 1642. The Dutch Reformed Church of Ceylon officially changed its name in 2007 to the Christian Reformed Church of Sri Lanka to reflect its Christian identity in the nation
The Dutch Reformed Church went with migrants to the Americas, beginning in 1628 in New Amsterdam. St. Thomas Reformed Church, founded in 1660 in St. Thomas, Danish West Indies, became the first Dutch Reformed Church in the Caribbean. During the period of Dutch settlement in Brazi
- Sacramental theology
- Infant baptism
- Mode and administration
In Reformed theology, baptism is the sacrament of initiation into the visible church, or body of people who publicly claim faith in Christ. Baptism also signifies regeneration and remission of sin. Reformed Christians believe that the children of those who express faith in Christ should be baptized. Because baptism is believed to be beneficial only to those who have faith in Christ, infants are baptized on the basis of the promise of faith which will come to fruition later in life.
Christian baptismal theology prior to the Reformation taught that sacraments, including baptism, are means or instruments through which God communicates grace to people. The sacrament was considered valid regardless of who administered it. Not everyone who received a sacrament, h
Huldrych Zwingli, the earliest theologian considered part of the Reformed tradition, was vigorously opposed to worship practices he believed to be based on tradition rather than the Bible. Nevertheless, he disagreed with Anabaptists, who refused to baptize their children on scrip
Friedrich Schleiermacher, an influential nineteenth-century Reformed theologian, saw baptism as the way the church receives new members and taught that faith is a precondition for baptism. He was ambivalent about the practice of infant baptism, teaching that it was not an essenti
In Reformed theology, sacraments are held to be, along with the word of God preached, the means of grace. In the sacraments, God graciously condescends to use common material objects to communicate divine promises to people. The grace promised consists not only in benefits which God bestows on people, but Christ's person himself, to whom God unites the believer. Sacraments confirm or ratify the promises communicated in preaching. Both preaching and the sacraments are not merely symbolic and repr
The Reformed tradition holds that baptism is primarily God's promise or offer of grace to the baptized. Baptism is said to signify union with Christ in his death, burial, and resurrection. The baptized is made one with Christ's person, meaning God the Father treats them the same as he treats Christ. Baptism also unites the baptized with Christ's history, meaning that the person can be said to have died, been buried, and raised again just as Christ was. The baptized person's identity in Christ is
With some notable exceptions, Reformed Christians baptize infants who are born to believing parents. Reformed Christians do so on the basis of the continuity from the old covenant between God and Israel and the new covenant with the church, since infants were circumcised under the old covenant. They also see God's saving purpose in the new covenant as having to do with families as well as individuals. Because Reformed Christians believe baptism must be embraced by faith to have any benefit, they
Reformed Christians believe that immersion is not necessary for baptism to be properly performed, but that pouring or sprinkling are acceptable. Sprinkling is said to symbolize the sprinkling of the blood of Christ for the removal of the guilt of sin. Only ordained ministers are permitted to administer baptism in Reformed churches, contrary to the allowance for emergency baptism by midwives in Roman Catholic churches, though baptisms performed by non-ministers are generally considered valid. Ref
The Reformed Churches in South Africa (Afrikaans: Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika) is a Christian denomination in South Africa that was formed in 1859 in Rustenburg. Members of the church are sometimes referred to as Doppers .
- 1859, Rustenburg
Historical Reformed systems of thought treat classical covenant theology not merely as a point of doctrine or as a central dogma, but as the structure by which the biblical text organizes itself. The most well known form of Covenant Theology is associated with Presbyterians and comes from the Westminster Confession of Faith .
- related to: Reformed wikipedia