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  1. Semi-presidential system - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semi-presidential_system

    A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter being responsible to the legislature of the state.

    • Military Governments

      Presidential republics with an executive presidency separate...

    • Definition

      Maurice Duverger's original definition of...

    • Subtypes

      There are two separate subtypes of semi-presidentialism:...

  2. Semi-presidential system - test2.Wikipedia

    test2.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semi-presidential_system

    Subtypes. There are two separate subtypes of semi-presidentialism: premier-presidentialism and president-parliamentarism. Under premier-presidentialism, the prime minister and cabinet are exclusively accountable to the assembly majority, where the president chooses the prime minister and cabinet and the parliament remove am from office with the vote of no confidence or the presidential dismiss ...

  3. Semi-presidential system - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ...

    simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semi-presidential_system

    The semi-presidential system is a system of government where both the prime minister and the president run the day-to-day affairs of the state This short article about politics can be made longer. You can help Wikipedia by adding to it .

    • Subtypes
    • Division of Powers
    • Cohabitation
    • Advantages and Disadvantages
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    There are two sep­a­rate sub­types of semi-pres­i­den­tial­ism: pre­mier-pres­i­den­tial­ism and pres­i­dent-par­lia­men­tarism. Under the pre­mier-pres­i­den­tial sys­tem, the prime min­is­ter and cab­i­net are ex­clu­sively ac­count­able to par­lia­ment. The pres­i­dent chooses the prime min­is­ter and cab­i­net, but only the par­lia­ment may re­move them from of­fice with a vote of no confidence. The pres­i­dent does not have the right to dis­miss the prime min­is­ter or the cab­i­net. How­ever, in some cases, the pres­i­dent can cir­cum­vent this lim­i­ta­tion by ex­er­cis­ing the dis­cre­tionary power of dis­solv­ing the as­sem­bly, which forces the prime min­is­ter and cab­i­net to step down. This sub­type is used in Ar­me­nia, Burk­ina Faso, Cape Verde, East Timor, France, Geor­gia (since 2013), Lithua­nia, Mada­gas­car, Mali, Mon­go­lia, Niger, Poland, Por­tu­gal, Ro­ma­nia, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sri Lanka and Ukraine(since 2014; pre­vi­ously, be­tween 2006 and 2010). Under...

    The pow­ers that are di­vided be­tween pres­i­dent and prime min­is­ter can vary greatly be­tween coun­tries. In France, for ex­am­ple, in case of co­hab­i­ta­tion, when the pres­i­dent and the prime min­is­ter come from op­pos­ing par­ties, the pres­i­dent over­sees for­eign pol­icy and de­fence pol­icy (these are gen­er­ally called les prérog­a­tives présidentielles (the pres­i­den­tial pre­rog­a­tives) and the prime min­is­ter do­mes­tic pol­icy and eco­nomic pol­icy. In this case, the di­vi­sion of re­spon­si­bil­i­ties be­tween the prime min­is­ter and the pres­i­dent is not ex­plic­itly stated in the con­sti­tu­tion, but has evolved as a po­lit­i­cal con­ven­tion based on the con­sti­tu­tional prin­ci­ple that the prime min­is­ter is ap­pointed (with the sub­se­quent ap­proval of a par­lia­ment ma­jor­ity) and dis­missed by the president. On the other hand, when­ever the pres­i­dent is from the same party as the prime min­is­ter who leads the con­seil de gouvernement (cab­i­ne...

    Semi-pres­i­den­tial sys­tems may some­times ex­pe­ri­ence pe­ri­ods in which the pres­i­dent and the prime min­is­ter are from dif­fer­ing po­lit­i­cal par­ties. This is called "co­hab­i­ta­tion", a term which orig­i­nated in France when the sit­u­a­tion first arose in the 1980s. Co­hab­i­ta­tion can cre­ate an ef­fec­tive sys­tem of checks and bal­ances or a pe­riod of bit­ter and tense stonewalling, de­pend­ing on the at­ti­tudes of the two lead­ers, the ide­olo­gies of their par­ties, or the de­mands of their constituencies. In most cases, co­hab­i­ta­tion re­sults from a sys­tem in which the two ex­ec­u­tives are not elected at the same time or for the same term. For ex­am­ple, in 1981, France elected both a So­cial­ist pres­i­dent and leg­is­la­ture, which yielded a So­cial­ist pre­mier. But whereas the pres­i­dent's term of of­fice was for seven years, the Na­tional As­sem­bly only served for five. When, in the 1986 leg­isla­tive elec­tion, the French peo­ple elected a right-...

    The in­cor­po­ra­tion of el­e­ments from both pres­i­den­tial and par­lia­men­tary re­publics brings some ad­van­ta­geous el­e­ments along with them but, how­ever, it also faces dis­ad­van­tages re­lated to the con­fu­sion from mixed au­thor­ity patterns. Ad­van­tages 1. Providing coverfor the president — it can shield the president from criticism and the unpopular policies can be blamed on the prime minister; 2. Ability to remove an unpopular prime minister and maintain stability from the president's fixed term — the parliament has power to removean unpopular prime minister; 3. Additional checks and balances— while the president can dismiss the prime minister in most semi-presidential systems, in most of the semi-presidential systems important segments of bureaucracy are taken away from the president. Dis­ad­van­tages 1. Confusion about accountability— parliamentary systems give voters a relatively clear sense of who is responsible for policy successes and failures; presidential sy...

    Governing Systems and Executive-Legislative Relations. (Presidential, Parliamentary and Hybrid Systems), United Nations Development Programme (n.d.). Archived 10 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine
    J. Kristiadi (April 22, 2008). "Indonesia Outlook 2007: Toward strong, democratic governance". The Jakarta Post. PT Bina Media Tenggara. Archived from the originalon 21 April 2008.
    The Semi-Presidential One, blog of Robert Elgie
  4. Presidential system - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presidential_system

    A presidential system contrasts with a parliamentary system, where the head of government comes to power by gaining the confidence of an elected legislature. There are also hybrid systems such as semi-presidentialism. Countries that feature a presidential or semi-presidential system of government are not the exclusive users of the title of ...

  5. Presidency - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presidency

    The French presidency is based on a semi-presidential system where both a president and a prime minister are active participants in the day-to-day administration of the state. France's president appoints a prime minister, who then forms a government.

  6. Semi-parliamentary system - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semi-parliamentary_system

    Semi-parliamentary system can refer to either a prime-ministerial system, in which voters simultaneously vote for both members of legislature and the prime minister, or to a system of government in which the legislature is split into two parts that are both directly elected – one that has the power to remove the members of the executive by a vote of no confidence and another that does not.

  7. President of Germany (1919–1945) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reichspräsident

    The Weimar constitution created a semi-presidential system in which power was divided between president, cabinet and parliament. [1] [2] [3] The Reichspräsident was directly elected under universal adult suffrage for a seven-year term.

  8. Parliamentary system - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parliamentary_system

    In a presidential system, all executive power is vested in one person, the president, whereas power is more divided in a parliamentary system with its collegial executive. In the 1989 Lebanese Taif Agreement , in order to give Muslims greater political power, Lebanon moved from a semi-presidential system with a powerful president to a system ...

  9. Politics of France - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_France

    Executive branch. France has a semi-presidential system of government, with both a President and a Prime Minister.The Prime Minister is responsible to the French Parliament.A presidential candidate is required to obtain a nationwide majority of non-blank votes at either the first or second round of balloting, which implies that the President is somewhat supported by at least half of the voting ...